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Volume 7(2); April 2016
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Editorial
Evaluation of Self-assessment in Cardiovascular Diseases Among Korean Older Population
Hae-Wol Cho, Chaeshin Chu
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(2):75-76.   Published online April 30, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2016.03.001
  • 1,586 View
  • 19 Download
  • 4 Citations
PDF
Review Article
Traditional and Modern Cell Culture in Virus Diagnosis
Ali Hematian, Nourkhoda Sadeghifard, Reza Mohebi, Morovat Taherikalani, Abbas Nasrolahi, Mansour Amraei, Sobhan Ghafourian
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(2):77-82.   Published online April 30, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2015.11.011
Correction in: Osong Public Health Res Perspect 2020;11(4):266
  • 2,933 View
  • 40 Download
  • 48 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Cell cultures are developed from tissue samples and then disaggregated by mechanical, chemical, and enzymatic methods to extract cells suitable for isolation of viruses. With the recent advances in technology, cell culture is considered a gold standard for virus isolation. This paper reviews the evolution of cell culture methods and demonstrates why cell culture is a preferred method for identification of viruses. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of both traditional and modern cell culture methods for diagnosis of each type of virus are discussed. Detection of viruses by the novel cell culture methods is considered more accurate and sensitive. However, there is a need to include some more accurate methods such as molecular methods in cell culture for precise identification of viruses.
Original Articles
Comparison of Three Different Methods for Detection of IL28 rs12979860 Polymorphisms as a Predictor of Treatment Outcome in Patients with Hepatitis C Virus
Abolfazl Fateh, Mohammadreza Aghasadeghi, Seyed D. Siadat, Farzam Vaziri, Farzin Sadeghi, Roohollah Fateh, Hossein Keyvani, Alireza H. Tasbiti, Shamsi Yari, Angila Ataei-Pirkooh, Seyed H. Monavari
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(2):83-89.   Published online April 30, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2015.11.004
  • 1,961 View
  • 16 Download
  • 17 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study aimed to evaluate the specificity, sensitivity, cost, and turn-around time of three methods of gene polymorphism analysis and to study the relationship between IL28B rs12979860 and SVR rate to pegIFN-α/RVB therapy among patients with chronic hepatitis C.
Methods
A total of 100 samples from chronic hepatitis C patients were analyzed in parallel using the three methods: direct sequencing, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS)-PCR.
Results
The different profiles for IL28B rs12979860 alleles (CC, CT, and TT) obtained with PCR-RFLP, ARMS-PCR, and direct sequencing were consistent among the three methods. Prevalence of rs12979860 genotypes CC, CT and TT in HCV genotype 1a was 10(19.6%), 35(68.6%), and six (11.8%), respectively, and in HCV genotype 31, it was 13(26.5%), 31(63.3%), and five (10.2%), respectively. No significant difference was seen between rs12979860 genotype and HCV genotype (p = 0.710).
Conclusion
Screening by ARMS – PCR SNOP detection represents the most efficient and reliable method to determine HCV polymorphisms in routine clinical practice.
Inorganic Phosphorus and Potassium Are Putative Indicators of Delayed Separation of Whole Blood
Jae-Eun Lee, Maria Hong, Seul-Ki Park, Ji-In Yu, Jin-Sook Wang, Haewon Shin, Jong-Wan Kim, Bok-Ghee Han, So-Youn Shin
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(2):90-95.   Published online April 30, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2015.11.003
  • 1,630 View
  • 15 Download
  • 6 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The delayed separation of whole blood can influence the concentrations of circulating blood components, including metabolites and cytokines. The aim of this study was to determine whether clinical-biochemistry analytes can be used to assess the delayed separation of whole blood.
Methods
We investigated the plasma and serum concentrations of five clinical-biochemistry analytes and free hemoglobin when the centrifugation of whole blood stored at 4°C or room temperature was delayed for 4 hours, 6 hours, 24 hours, or 48 hours, and compared the values with those of matched samples that had been centrifuged within 2 hours after whole-blood collection.
Results
The inorganic phosphorus (IP) levels in the plasma and serum samples were elevated ≥ 1.5-fold when whole-blood centrifugation was delayed at room temperature for 48 hours. Furthermore, the IP levels in the plasma samples showed excellent assessment accuracy [area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve (AUC) > 0.9] after a 48-hour delay in whole-blood separation, and high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (95%) at an optimal cutoff point. The IP levels in the serum samples also exhibited good assessment accuracy (AUC > 0.8), and high sensitivity (81%) and specificity (100%). The potassium (K+) levels were elevated 1.4-fold in the serum samples following a 48-hour delay in whole-blood separation. The K+ levels showed excellent assessment accuracy (AUC > 0.9) following a 48-hour delay in whole-blood separation, and high sensitivity (95%) and specificity (91%) at an optimal cutoff point.
Conclusion
Our study showed that the IP and K+ levels in the plasma or serum samples could be considered as putative indicators to determine whether whole-blood separation had been delayed for extended periods.
Role of Organizational Climate in Organizational Commitment: The Case of Teaching Hospitals
Mohammad Amin Bahrami, Omid Barati, Malake-sadat Ghoroghchian, Razieh Montazer-alfaraj, Mohammad Ranjbar Ezzatabadi
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(2):96-100.   Published online April 30, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2015.11.009
  • 2,034 View
  • 15 Download
  • 17 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objective The commitment of employees is affected by several factors, including factors related to the organizational climate. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between organizational commitment of nurses and the organizational climate in hospital settings.
Methods
A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 at two teaching hospitals in Yazd, Iran. A total of 90 nurses in these hospitals participated. We used stratified random sampling of the nursing population. The required data were gathered using two valid questionnaires: Allen and Meyer's organizational commitment standard questionnaire and Halpin and Croft's Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire. Data analysis was done through SPSS 20 statistical software (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA). We used descriptive statistics and Pearson's correlation coefficient for the data analysis.
Results
The findings indicated a positive and significant correlation between organizational commitment and organizational climate (r = 0.269, p = 0.01). There is also a significant positive relationship between avoidance of organizational climate and affective commitment (r = 0.208, p = 0.049) and between focus on production and normative and continuance commitment (r = 0.308, p = 0.003).
Conclusion
Improving the organizational climate could be a valuable strategy for improving organizational commitment.
Gender-based Violence Among Pregnant Women of Syangja District, Nepal
Samjhana Gurung, Jeevan Acharya
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(2):101-107.   Published online April 30, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2015.11.010
  • 1,864 View
  • 17 Download
  • 8 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study aims to determine prevalence of gender-based violence among pregnant women attending an antenatal care (ANC) clinic.
Methods
Between September 2014 and December 2014, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 202 pregnant women attending the antenatal ward of the Primary Healthcare Centre (PHC) of Syangja district, Nepal. The data were collected using semistructure questionnaires with face-to-face interviews. SPSS software (IBM Corp, Armonk, NY, USA) was used for analysis the data.
Results
The prevalence rate of gender-based violence was found to be 91.1% (184). Most of the respondents (87%) faced economic violence followed by psychological (53.8%), sexual (41.8%), and physical (4.3%) violence. Women experienced: (1) psychological violence with most complaining of angry looks followed by jealousy or anger while talking with other men, insults using abusive language and neglect; (2) economic violence with most complaining of financial hardship, denial of basic needs and an insistence on knowing where respondents were and restricting them to parents' home or friends/relatives' houses (jealousy); (3) physical violence by slapping, pushing, shaking, or throwing something at her, twisting arm or pulling hair, and punching and kicking; and (4) sexual violence by physically forcing her to have sexual intercourse without consent, and hurting or causing injury to private parts. Most (100%) of the perpetrators were found to be husbands and mothers-in-law (10.7%) who violated them rarely.
Conclusion
The prevalence of gender-based violence (GBV) among pregnant women attending the ANC clinic was greater in the Syangja district of Nepal. Women's empowerment, economic autonomy, sensitization, informal or formal training regarding GBV for men and women, and the need for large-scale population-based surveys are the major recommendations of this study.
Accuracy of Self-reported Hypertension, Diabetes, and Hypercholesterolemia: Analysis of a Representative Sample of Korean Older Adults
Heeran Chun, Il-Ho Kim, Kyung-Duk Min
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(2):108-115.   Published online April 30, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2015.12.002
  • 2,010 View
  • 23 Download
  • 38 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study will assess the accuracy of self-reported hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia among Korean older adults.
Methods
Using data from the fourth Korean National Health Examination and Nutrition Survey (KNHANES IV, 2007–2009), we selected 7,270 individuals aged 50 years and older who participated in both a health examination and a health interview survey. Self-reported prevalence of hypertension (HTN), diabetes mellitus (DM), and hypercholesterolemia was compared with measured data (arterial systolic/diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, and total cholesterol).
Results
An agreement between self-reported and measured data was only moderate for hypercholesterolemia (κ, 0.48), even though it was high for HTN (κ, 0.72) and DM (κ, 0. 82). Sensitivity was low in hypercholesterolemia (46.7%), but high in HTN and DM (73% and 79.3%, respectively). Multiple analysis shows that predictors for sensitivity differed by disease. People with less education were more likely to exhibit lower sensitivity to HTN and hypercholesterolemia, and people living in rural areas were less sensitive to DM and hypercholesterolemia.
Conclusion
Caution is needed in interpreting the results of community studies using self-reported data on chronic diseases, especially hypercholesterolemia, among adults aged 50 years and older.
Anti-biofilm Properties of Peganum harmala against Candida albicans
Elham Aboualigalehdari, Nourkhoda Sadeghifard, Morovat Taherikalani, Zaynab Zargoush, Zahra Tahmasebi, Behzad Badakhsh, Arman Rostamzad, Sobhan Ghafourian, Iraj Pakzad
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(2):116-118.   Published online April 30, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2015.12.010
  • 1,895 View
  • 18 Download
  • 11 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Vaginitis still remains as a health issue in women. It is notable that Candida albicans producing biofilm is considered a microorganism responsible for vaginitis with hard to treat. Also, Peganum harmala was applied as an anti fungal in treatment for many infections in Iran. Therefore, this study goal to investigate the role of P. harmala in inhibition of biofilm formation in C. albicans.
Methods
So, 27 C. albicans collected from women with Vaginitis, then subjected for biofilm formation assay. P. harmala was applied as antibiofilm formation in C. albicans.
Results
Our results demonstrated that P. harmala in concentration of 12 μg/ml easily inhibited strong biofilm formation; while the concentrations of 10 and 6 μg/ml inhibited biofilm formation in moderate and weak biofilm formation C. albicans strains, respectively.
Conclusion
Hence, the current study presented P. harmala as antibiofilm herbal medicine for C. albicans; but in vivo study suggested to be performed to confirm its effectiveness.
Management of Sodium-reduced Meals at Worksite Cafeterias: Perceptions, Practices, Barriers, and Needs among Food Service Personnel
Jounghee Lee, Sohyun Park
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(2):119-126.   Published online April 30, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2015.12.011
  • 1,667 View
  • 14 Download
  • 4 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The sodium content of meals provided at worksite cafeterias is greater than the sodium content of restaurant meals and home meals. The objective of this study was to assess the relationships between sodium-reduction practices, barriers, and perceptions among food service personnel.
Methods
We implemented a cross-sectional study by collecting data on perceptions, practices, barriers, and needs regarding sodium-reduced meals at 17 worksite cafeterias in South Korea. We implemented Chi-square tests and analysis of variance for statistical analysis. For post hoc testing, we used Bonferroni tests; when variances were unequal, we used Dunnett T3 tests.
Results
This study involved 104 individuals employed at the worksite cafeterias, comprised of 35 men and 69 women. Most of the participants had relatively high levels of perception regarding the importance of sodium reduction (very important, 51.0%; moderately important, 27.9%). Sodium reduction practices were higher, but perceived barriers appeared to be lower in participants with high-level perception of sodium-reduced meal provision. The results of the needs assessment revealed that the participants wanted to have more active education programs targeting the general population. The biggest barriers to providing sodium-reduced meals were use of processed foods and limited methods of sodium-reduced cooking in worksite cafeterias.
Conclusion
To make the provision of sodium-reduced meals at worksite cafeterias more successful and sustainable, we suggest implementing more active education programs targeting the general population, developing sodium-reduced cooking methods, and developing sodium-reduced processed foods.
Rapid Detection of Rifampicin- and Isoniazid-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis using TaqMan Allelic Discrimination
Davood Darban-Sarokhalil, Mohammad J. Nasiri, Abbas A.I. Fooladi, Parvin Heidarieh, Mohammad M. Feizabadi
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(2):127-130.   Published online April 30, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2016.01.003
  • 1,761 View
  • 16 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a global problem that many countries are challenged with. Rapid and accurate detection of MDR-TB is critical for appropriate treatment and controlling of TB. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the TaqMan allelic discrimination without minor groove binder (MGB) as a rapid, efficient, and low-cost method for detection of drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Methods
A total of 112 M. tuberculosis isolates from cases with diagnosed TB were subjected to drug susceptibility testing (DST), using the proportion method. Resistant isolates were tested for characterization of mutations in the rpoB and KatG genes by TaqMan genotyping.
Results
Of 112 M. tuberculosis isolates for which DST was performed, three, one, and two isolates were MDR, rifampin (RIF) resistant, and isoniazid (INH) resistant, respectively. According to the threshold cycle (Ct) and curve pattern of mutants, TaqMan probes detect all of the mutations in the analyzed genes (katG 315, AGC→ACC, rpoB 531, TCG→TTG, and rpoB 531, TCG→TGG).
Conclusion
The present study suggests that drug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis can be detected by pattern’s curve or Ct with TaqMan probes without MGB in real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Comparing Seasonal Pattern of Laboratory Confirmed Cases of Pertussis with Clinically Suspected Cases
Golam Reza Ghorbani, Seyed Mohsen Zahraei, Mahmood Moosazadeh, Mahdi Afshari, Fahimeh Doosti
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(2):131-137.   Published online April 30, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2016.02.004
  • 1,653 View
  • 18 Download
  • 10 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
During recent decades, there has been limited attention on the seasonal pattern of pertussis within a high vaccine coverage population. This study aimed to compare the seasonal patterns of clinical suspected pertussis cases with those of laboratory confirmed cases in Iran.
Methods
The current study was conducted using time series methods. Time variables included months and seasons during 2011–2013. The effects of seasons and months on the incidence of pertussis were estimated using analysis of variance or Kruskal–Wallis.
Results
The maximum average incidence of clinically confirmed pertussis was 23.3 in July (p = 0.04), but the maximum incidence of clinical suspected pertussis was 115.7 in May (p = 0.6). The maximum seasonal incidences of confirmed and clinical pertussis cases were reported in summer (average: 12, p = 0.004), and winter (average: 108.1; p = 0.4), respectively.
Conclusion
The present study showed that the seasonal pattern of laboratory confirmed pertussis cases is highly definite and different from the pattern of clinical suspected cases.
Corrigendum

PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives