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Volume 5(5); October 2014
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Editorial
Roll the Dice
Hae-Wol Cho, Chaeshin Chu
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014;5(5):243-244.   Published online October 31, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.09.001
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  • 18 Download
PDF
Original Articles
Molecular Investigation of Quinolone Resistance of Quinolone Resistance-Determining Region in Streptococcus pneumoniae Strains Isolated from Iran Using Polymerase Chain Reaction–Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Method
Mohammad Kargar, Fataneh Moein Jahromi, Abbas Doosti, Somayeh Handali
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014;5(5):245-250.   Published online October 31, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.08.010
  • 1,371 View
  • 21 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae to the recently available antibiotic treatment has been a growing problem. The aim of the study was to determine the quinolone-resistant strains and detect the presence of mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions of the gyrA, parE, and parC genes.
Methods
In this study, for the first time in Iran, the polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method was used to investigate the presence of mutations at quinolone resistance-determining regions of topoisomerase IV and DNA gyrase on 82 S. pneumoniae strains, among them 45 clinical samples were from patients and 37 from healthy carriers (control group).
Results
In clinical samples, 34 (75.56%) strains contained mutations in the parC gene, 31 (68.89%) carried mutations in the gyrA gene, and 14 (31.11%) had parE gene mutations. Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed using the CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute) criteria on three different generations of quinolone family, with nalidixic acid (82.22%) showing the highest resistance and levofloxacin (42.22%) the least resistance.
Conclusion

Results
indicated that there is a significant correlation between quinolone resistance development and mutations in the parE gene as well as in the parC and gyrA genes.
Associations Between Estimated Desaturase Activity and Insulin Resistance in Korean Boys
Young Sim Choi, Han Byul Jang, Ju Yeon Park, Hye-Ja Lee, Jae-Heon Kang, Kyung-Hee Park, Jong Ho Lee, Sang Ick Park, Jihyun Song
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014;5(5):251-257.   Published online October 31, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.08.008
  • 1,398 View
  • 15 Download
  • 8 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Obesity in childhood increases the risk of obesity in adulthood, and is predictive of the development of metabolic disorders. The fatty acid compositions of various tissues, including blood, are associated with obesity and obesity-associated disorders. Thus, tracking plasma phospholipid (PL) features and metabolic parameters in young individuals may strengthen the utility of fatty acid composition as an early biomarker of future metabolic disorders.
Methods
Anthropometric and blood biochemical data were obtained from 131 Korean males aged 10.5 ± 0.4 years, and followed up at 2 years. We analyzed the plasma PL fatty acids according to obesity. Obese children were defined as those with a body mass index (BMI) greater than the 85th percentile for age and gender, based on Korean child growth standards.
Results
Activities of lipid desaturases, stearyl-CoAD (SCD-16,16:1n-7/16:0), delta-6D (D6D, 20:3n-6/18:2n-6), and delta-5D (D5D, 20:4n-6/20:3n-6), were estimated. Obese individuals had significantly higher proportions of palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7) and dihomo-gamma linolenic acid (DGLA, 20:3n-6) at both baseline and follow-up than did lean individuals. The activities of SCD-16 and D6D were higher in obese than lean boys. The baseline SCD-16 activity level was positively associated with the baseline waist circumference (WC) and the metabolic risk score. The baseline D6D level was positively associated with WC and also with the homeostasis model of assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), a surrogate marker of insulin resistance (IR), and metabolic risk score at both baseline and follow-up.
Conclusion
In young Korean males, higher D6D activity predicts the future development of IR and associated metabolic disorders including dyslipidemia.
Suicidal Ideation and its Correlates among Juvenile Delinquents in South Korea
Suyoung Kim, Hyekyeong Kim, Dong-Chul Seo, Dong Hwan Lee, Han-Ik Cho
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014;5(5):258-265.   Published online October 31, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.08.007
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  • 5 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study investigated suicidal ideation and its correlates among juvenile delinquents in South Korea.
Methods
Suicidal ideation, psychological health status, and health-related behaviors were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire in 1682 juvenile offenders aged between 15 and 18 years in 2012.
Results
The prevalence of suicidal ideation in juvenile delinquents was 15.2%. Girls were more likely to report suicidal thoughts than boys (30.3% vs. 12.7%). Suicidal ideation was more common among adolescents who were not living with their family prior to entering detention centers (22.6% vs. 13.2%) than their counterparts. The likelihood of suicidal ideation was significantly associated with problem drinking [odds ratio (OR) = 1.84], psychedelic drug use (OR = 2.04), feeling unhappy (OR = 3.05), feeling sad or depressed (OR = 13.37) after controlling for sociodemographic factors, other health behaviors and perceptions.
Conclusion
The present study provides evidence for an association between suicidal ideation and psychological health and health risk behaviors among juvenile delinquents. It also highlights the importance of mental health and behavioral interventions for this population to prevent suicidality.
Optimal Implementation of Intervention Strategies for Elderly People with Ludomania
Byul Nim Kim, M.A. Masud, Yongkuk Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014;5(5):266-273.   Published online October 31, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.08.006
  • 1,203 View
  • 18 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Now-a-days gambling is growing especially fast among older adults. To control the gratuitous growth of gambling, well-analyzed scientific strategies are necessary. We tried to analyze the adequacy of the health of society mathematically through immediate treatment of patients with early prevention.
Methods
The model from Lee and Do was modified and control parameters were introduced. Pontryagin's Maximum Principle was used to obtain an optimal control strategy.
Results
Optimal control can be achieved through simultaneous use of the control parameters, though it varies from society to society. The control corresponding to prevention needed to be implemented in full almost all the time for all types of societies. In the case of the other two controls, the scenario was greatly affected depending on the types of societies.
Conclusion
Prevention and treatment for elderly people with ludomania are the main intervention strategies. We found that optimal timely implementation of the intervention strategies was more effective. The optimal control strategy varied with the initial number of gamblers. However, three intervention strategies were considered, among which, preventing people from engaging in all types of gambling proved to be the most crucial.
Cloning and Expression of Recombinant Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus-like Particles in Pichia pastoris
Seok-Min Yun, Young Eui Jeong, Eunbyeol Wang, Ye-Ji Lee, Myung Guk Han, Chan Park, Won-Ja Lee, WooYoung Choi
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014;5(5):274-278.   Published online October 31, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.08.005
  • 1,406 View
  • 16 Download
  • 6 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The purpose of this study was to verify the feasibility of using the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAP) promotor based Pichia pastoris expression system to produce tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) virus-like particles (VLPs).
Methods
The complementary DNA encoding the TBEV prM signal peptide, prM, and E proteins of TBEV Korean strain (KrM 93) was cloned into the plasmid vector pGAPZɑA, then integrated into the genome of P. pastoris, under the control of the GAP promoter. Expression of TBEV VLPs was determined by Western blotting using monoclonal antibody against TBEV envelope (E) protein.
Results
Recombinant TBEV VLPs consisting of prM and E protein were successfully expressed using the GAP promoter-based P. pastoris expression system. The results of Western blotting showed that the recombinant proteins were secreted into the culture supernatant from the P. pastoris and glycosylated.
Conclusion
This study suggests that recombinant TBEV VLPs from P. pastoris offer a promising approach to the production of VLPs for use as vaccines and diagnostic antigens.
A New Direction of Cancer Classification: Positive Effect of Low-Ranking MicroRNAs
Feifei Li, Minghao Piao, Yongjun Piao, Meijing Li, Keun Ho Ryu
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014;5(5):279-285.   Published online October 31, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.08.004
  • 1,267 View
  • 14 Download
  • 5 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Many studies based on microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles showed a new aspect of cancer classification. Because one characteristic of miRNA expression data is the high dimensionality, feature selection methods have been used to facilitate dimensionality reduction. The feature selection methods have one shortcoming thus far: they just consider the problem of where feature to class is 1:1 or n:1. However, because one miRNA may influence more than one type of cancer, human miRNA is considered to be ranked low in traditional feature selection methods and are removed most of the time. In view of the limitation of the miRNA number, low-ranking miRNAs are also important to cancer classification.
Methods
We considered both high- and low-ranking features to cover all problems (1:1, n:1, 1:n, and m:n) in cancer classification. First, we used the correlation-based feature selection method to select the high-ranking miRNAs, and chose the support vector machine, Bayes network, decision tree, k-nearest-neighbor, and logistic classifier to construct cancer classification. Then, we chose Chi-square test, information gain, gain ratio, and Pearson's correlation feature selection methods to build the m:n feature subset, and used the selected miRNAs to determine cancer classification.
Results
The low-ranking miRNA expression profiles achieved higher classification accuracy compared with just using high-ranking miRNAs in traditional feature selection methods.
Conclusion
Our results demonstrate that the m:n feature subset made a positive impression of low-ranking miRNAs in cancer classification.
Comparison of Four Serological Tests for Detecting Antibodies to Japanese Encephalitis Virus after Vaccination in Children
Go Woon Cha, Jung Eun Cho, Young Ran Ju, Young-Jin Hong, Myung Guk Han, Won-Ja Lee, Eui Yul Choi, Young Eui Jeong
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014;5(5):286-291.   Published online October 31, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.08.003
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  • 11 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Several different methods are currently used to detect antibodies to Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in serum samples or cerebrospinal fluid. These methods include the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of each method in detecting vaccine-induced antibodies to JEV.
Methods
The study included 29 children who had completed a primary immunization schedule with an inactivated vaccine against JEV derived from mouse brain (n = 15) or a live attenuated SA14-14-2 vaccine (n = 14). Serum samples were collected between 3 months and 47 months after the last immunization. The serum samples were tested by performing the PRNT, HI test, in-house IFA, and commercial ELISA. The antibody detection rates were compared between tests.
Results
All 29 serum samples were positive with the PRNT, showing antibody titers from 1:20 to 1:2560. The HI test showed positive rates of 86.7% (13/15) and 71.4% (10/14) in the inactivated and live attenuated vaccine groups, respectively. The results of the IFA for immunoglobulin (Ig)G were positive in 53.3% (8/15) of children in the inactivated vaccine group and 35.7% (5/14) in the live attenuated vaccine group. Neither the IFA nor ELISA detected JEV IgM antibodies in any of the 29 children.
Conclusion
These results show that detection rates of vaccine-induced antibodies to JEV have a wide range (0–100%) depending on the testing method as well as the time since immunization and individual differences between children. These findings are helpful in interpreting serological test results for the diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis in situations where vaccines are widely administered.
Evidence Gap on the Prevalence of Non-conventional Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes in Iran
Abdolreza Shaghaghi, Ali Ahmadi
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014;5(5):292-297.   Published online October 31, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.08.002
  • 1,270 View
  • 17 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Robust scientific evidence exists about the role of non-conventional risk factors in type 2 diabetes worldwide. The current epidemiological pattern of the disease in Iran suggests a precipitating role for these non-conventional risk factors. This review was performed to examine the research evidence suggesting a higher prevalence of non-conventional type 2 diabetes risk factors in Iran.
Methods
MeSH keywords were applied to search several databases, including PUBMED, MEDLINE, AMED, EMBASE, Iran DOC, and the Scientific Information Database without a time limit from inception to September 2011. The quality of the non-interventional and population-based studies on Iranians included in these databases was assessed by the authors and any disagreement was resolved with consensus.
Results
The literature search yielded 1847 publications, of which 62 were included in this study after eliminating non-relevant and overlapping papers. No study was found that verified a higher prevalence of the non-conventional type 2 diabetes risk factors in the Iranian population.
Conclusion
The identified evidence gap about the role of prominent non-conventional risk factors of type 2 diabetes in the Iranian population could be a major caveat in the application of an evidence-based approach to endorse or reject existing hypothesis about these risk factors. Studies on the prevalence of non-conventional biomarkers of type 2 diabetes among Iranians could be a promising area of research.
In Vitro Antibacterial Activity, Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Woodfordia fruticosa Kurz. Leaf Extract and Host Toxicity Testing With In Vitro Cultured Lymphocytes From Human Umbilical Cord Blood
Debasmita Dubey, Rajashree Patnaik, Goutam Ghosh, Rabindra N. Padhy
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014;5(5):298-312.   Published online October 31, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.08.001
  • 1,283 View
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  • 12 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
To locate a plant with suitable phytochemicals for use as antimicrobial agents to control multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria as a complementary medicine, without host toxicity as monitored through cultured lymphocytes from human umbilical cord blood.
Methods
The methanol crude leaf extract of the plant Woodfordia fruticosa was subjected to antimicrobial assay in vitro with nine pathogenic MDR bacteria from clinical samples. This was followed by bioassay-guided fractionation with seven non-polar to polar solvents, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of the n-butanol fraction, and monitoring of the host toxicity of the leaf extract with in vitro grown lymphocytes from human umbilical cord blood.
Results
The leaf extract of W. fruticosa had a controlling capacity for MDR bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of the n-butanol fraction were < 1.89 mg/mL extract and 9.63 mg/mL extract, respectively. The gas chromatography–mass spectrometry spectrum of the n-butanol fraction confirmed the presence of 13 peaks of different compounds with retention times of 9.11 minutes, 9.72 minutes, 10.13 minutes, 10.78 minutes, 12.37 minutes, 12.93 minutes, 18.16 minutes, 21.74 minutes, 21.84 minutes, 5.96 minutes, 12.93 minutes, 24.70 minutes, and 25.76 minutes. The six leading compounds were: diethyl phthalate: IUPAC name: diethyl benzene-1,2-dicarboxylate; 5-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl) phenol: IUPAC name: 5-methyl-2-propan-2-ylphenol; (E )-3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-diene-1-thiol: IUPAC name: (2Z)-3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-diene-1-thiol; 2,6,10-dodecatrien-1-ol, 3,7,11-trimethyl-, (E,E ): IUPAC name: 2,6,10-dodecatrien-1-ol; 3,7,11-trimethyl-, (E,E); 2-methoxy-4-(2-propenyl) phenol: IUPAC name: 2-methoxy-4-[(1E)-prop-1-en-1-yl]phenol; hexadecanoic acid: IUPAC name: hexadecanoic acid.
Conclusion
The presence of antimicrobial compounds that are therapeutically potent against MDR bacteria was confirmed in W. fruticosa. The crude leaf extract showed no host toxicity with human lymphocytes; the n-butanol fraction of the extract was the most suitable bioactive fraction. The terpenes isolated were: 5-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl) phenol, 2-methoxy-4-(2-propenyl) phenol, 2,6-octadien-1-ol, 3,7-dimethyl-(E)-2,6-octadienal, 3,7-dimethylcyclohexanol, and cyclohexanol, 2-methylene-5-(1-methylethenyl) which were reported to have specifically antimicrobial activity.

PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives