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Volume 5(3); June 2014
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Editorial
A Period of Storm and Stress
Hae-Wol Cho, Chaeshin Chu
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014;5(3):117-118.   Published online June 30, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.05.001
  • 1,460 View
  • 29 Download
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Original Articles
Molecular Typing of Mycobacterium intracellulare Using Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis, Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis, Mycobacteria Interspersed Repetitive-Unit-Variable-Number Tandem Repeat Typing, and Multilocus Sequence Typing: Molecular Characterization and Comparison of Each Typing Methods
Semi Jeon, Nara Lim, Seungjik Kwon, Taesun Shim, Misun Park, Bum-Joon Kim, Seonghan Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014;5(3):119-130.   Published online June 30, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.04.003
  • 1,733 View
  • 14 Download
  • 8 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Mycobacterium intracellulare is the major causative agent of nontuberculous mycobacteria-related pulmonary infections. The strain typing of M. intracellulare is important for the treatment and control of its infections. We compared the discrimination capacity and effective value of four different molecular typing methods.
Methods
Antibiotic susceptibility testing, hsp65 and rpoB sequencing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), mycobacteria interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MIRU-VNTR), and VNTR assay targeting 44 M. intracellulare isolates obtained from patients with pulmonary infections were performed.
Results
All the antibiotic susceptibility patterns had no association with the molecular and sequence types tested in this study; however, the molecular and sequence types were related with each other. PFGE gave best results for discriminatory capacity, followed by VNTR, MLST, and MIRU-VNTR.
Conclusion
The high discriminatory power of PFGE, VNTR, and MLST is enough for differentiating between reinfection and relapse, as well as for other molecular epidemiological usages. The MLST could be regarded as a representative classification method, because it showed the clearest relation with the sequence types.
Prediction Forecast for Culex tritaeniorhynchus Populations in Korea
Nam-Hyun Kim, Wook-Gyo Lee, E-Hyun Shin, Jong Yul Roh, Hae-Chun Rhee, Mi Yeoun Park
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014;5(3):131-137.   Published online June 30, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.04.004
  • 1,695 View
  • 25 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Japanese encephalitis is considered as a secondary legal infectious disease in Korea and is transmitted by mosquitoes in the summer season. The purpose of this study was to predict the ratio of Culex tritaeniorhynchus to all the species of mosquitoes present in the study regions.
Methods
From 1999 to 2012, black light traps were installed in 10 regions in Korea (Busan, Gyeonggi, Gangwon, Chungbuk, Chungnam, Jeonbuk, Jeonnam, Gyeongbuk, Gyeongnam, and Jeju) to capture mosquitoes for identification and classification under a dissecting microscope. The number of mosquitoes captured/week was used to calculate its daily occurrence (mosquitoes/trap/night). To predict the characteristics of the mosquito population, an autoregressive model of order p (AR(p)) was used to execute the out-of-sample prediction and the in-sample estimation after presumption.
Results
Compared with the out-of-sample method, the sample-weighted regression method's case was relatively superior for prediction, and this method predicted a decrease in the frequency of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus for 2013. However, the actual frequency of this species showed an increase in frequency. By contrast, the frequency rate of all the mosquitoes including Cx. tritaeniorhynchus gradually decreased.
Conclusion
The number of patients with Japanese encephalitis has been strongly associated with the occurrence and density of vector mosquitoes, and the importance of this infectious disease has been highlighted since 2010. The 2013 prediction indicated an increase after an initial decrease, although the ratio of the two mosquito species decreased. The increase in vector density may be due to changes in temperature and the environment. Thus, continuous prevalence prediction is warranted.
Smoking and Alcohol Drinking Related to Experience of Harmful Shops among Korean Adolescents
Jinyoung Kim, Aeree Sohn
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014;5(3):138-147.   Published online June 30, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.04.005
  • 1,574 View
  • 16 Download
  • 8 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study was conducted in order to determine any correlation between experience of harmful shops and adolescent smoking and alcohol drinking in middle and high school students.
Methods
The survey was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire online via the homepage of the Ministry of Education student Health Information Center; 1888 and 1563 questionnaires were used for middle and high school students, respectively, for a total of 3451 questionnaires in the final analysis. The collected data were processed using SPSS version 21.0 and examined using frequency analysis and hierarchical linear regression.
Results
In this research, 8.3% of all participants were found to have experienced smoking and 17.0% alcohol drinking. Regarding the types of harmful shops, 81.8% said they had been to a gaming place; 21.2% to a lodging place; 16.0% to a sex and entertainment place; and 6.8% to a harmful sex industry location. Sociodemographic variables had a significant effect on adolescent smoking and alcohol drinking. Regarding environmental variables, a significant difference was observed for living with parents and school location. Among adolescent experience of harmful shops, both smoking and alcohol drinking showed a significant association with harmful sex industry locations.
Conclusion
National government-level management and supervision on this issue will be necessary to prevent adolescent access to harmful shops, along with more studies exploring methods for implementation of policies with more systematic control of harmful shops.
Factors Affecting Hospital Employees' Knowledge Sharing Intention and Behavior, and Innovation Behavior
Hyun Sook Lee, Seong Ae Hong
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014;5(3):148-155.   Published online June 30, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.04.006
  • 2,035 View
  • 17 Download
  • 23 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
To investigate the factors affecting employees' knowledge sharing intention, knowledge sharing behavior, and innovation behavior of the four top-ranked university hospitals in South Korea.
Methods
Data were collected from employees at three university hospitals in Seoul, Korea and one university hospital in Gyeonggi-Do, Korea through self-administered questionnaires. The survey was conducted from May 29, 2013 to July 17, 2013. A total of 779 questionnaires were analyzed by SPSS version 18.0 and AMOS version 18.0.
Results
Factors affecting hospital employees' knowledge sharing intention, knowledge sharing behavior, and innovation behavior are reciprocity, behavioral control, and trust.
Conclusion
It is important to select employees who have a propensity for innovation and continuously educate them about knowledge management based on trust.
Possibility of CTX-M-14 Gene Transfer from Shigella sonnei to a Commensal Escherichia coli Strain of the Gastroenteritis Microbiome
Seung-Hak Cho, Soon Young Han, Yeon-Ho Kang
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014;5(3):156-160.   Published online June 30, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.04.007
  • 1,712 View
  • 13 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
To investigated whether the CTX-M-14 gene could be transferred from a clinical Shigella sonnei strain to commensal Escherichia coli strain in the gastroenteritis microbiome.
Methods
E. coli strains were isolated from 30 stool samples of S. sonnei infected students in a gastroenteritis outbreak in 2004 and were characterized by antibiotic resistance analysis, in vitro conjugation and in vivo transfer of CTX-M-14 gene and molecular assays.
Results
One strain of Escherichia coli that had high levels of resistance to cefotaxime was isolated from a patient infected with S. sonnei. Isoelectric focusing showed that the E. coli and S. sonnei strains produced a β-lactamase with an isoelectric point of 8.1. Moreover, polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that both strains possessed the same DNA sequences for CTX-M-14. The results of in vitro and in vivo conjugation showed that the efficiency of CTX-M-14 transfer from S. sonnei to E. coli was similar to CTX-M-14 transfer between E. coli strains.
Conclusion
The data suggest that the acquisition of the extended-spectrum β-lactamases gene by pathogenic bacteria in the human intestinal tract to commensal microbiome bacteria can cause serious infectious diseases.
Frequencies of CD4+ T Regulatory Cells and their CD25high and FoxP3high Subsets Augment in Peripheral Blood of Patients with Acute and Chronic Brucellosis
Abbas Bahador, Jamshid Hadjati, Niloofar Hassannejad, Hadi Ghazanfari, Mohammadreza Maracy, Sirous Jafari, Maryam Nourizadeh, Amirhooshang Nejadeh
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014;5(3):161-168.   Published online June 30, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.04.008
  • 1,626 View
  • 15 Download
  • 8 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Brucellosis remains one of the most common zoonotic diseases worldwide. In humans, brucellosis can be a serious, debilitating, and sometimes chronic disease. Different mechanisms can be postulated as to the basis for the induction of the chronic status of infectious diseases that T regulatory cells are one of the most important related mechanisms. The current study was designed to determine whether percentage of CD4+Treg cells and their CD25high and FoxP3high subpopulations in peripheral blood are changed in human brucellosis samples in comparison to a control group.
Methods
In total, 68 brucellosis patients (acute form: n = 43, chronic form: n = 25) and 36 healthy volunteers entered our study. After isolating of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, heparinized venous blood samples were obtained from both patients and healthy donors, CD4, CD25, and FoxP3 molecules were evaluated by two- and three-color flow cytometric methods.
Results
The results revealed a new finding in relation to Treg cells and human brucellosis. The numbers of CD4+Treg cells and their CD25high and FoxP3high subsets increase significantly in the peripheral blood of acute and chronic forms of brucellosis samples compared with healthy groups, with this increase being greater in the chronic group.
Conclusion
There seems to be a correlation between increase of CD4+Treg cells and their subsets and the disease progress from healthy state to acute and chronic brucellosis.
Prevalence of Dyslipidemia and Hypertension in Indian Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Metabolic Syndrome and its Clinical Significance
Dhananjay Yadav, Meerambika Mishra, Arvind Tiwari, Prakash Singh Bisen, Hari Mohan Goswamy, G.B.K.S. Prasad
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014;5(3):169-175.   Published online June 30, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.04.009
  • 1,754 View
  • 22 Download
  • 11 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The present study was designed to estimate the prevalence of dyslipidemia and hypertension based on the National Cholesterol Educational Programme Adult Treatment Panel III definition of metabolic syndrome (MetS). The study also focuses on prevalence for MetS with respect to the duration of disease in Gwalior–Chambal region of Madhya Pradesh, India.
Methods
Type 2 diabetic patients (n = 700) were selected from a cross-sectional study that is regularly being conducted in the School of Studies in Biochemistry, Jiwaji University Gwalior, India. The period of our study was from January 2007 to October 2009. Dyslipidemia and hypertension were determined in type 2 diabetic patients with MetS as per National Cholesterol Educational Programme Adult Treatment Panel III criteria.
Results
The mean age of the study population was 54 ± 9.3 years with 504 (72%) males and 196 (28%) females. The prevalence of MetS increased with increased duration of diabetes in females; however, almost constant prevalence was seen in the males. Notable increase in the dyslipidemia (64.1%) and hypertension (49%) in type 2 diabetic patients were seen. The steep increase in dyslipidemia and hypertension could be the reason for the growing prevalence of diabetes worldwide. The study also noted a close association between age and occurrence of MetS.
Conclusion
Individual variable of MetS appears to be highly rampant in diabetic population. Despite treatment, almost half of patients still met the criteria for MetS. Effective treatment of MetS components is required to reduce cardiovascular risk in diabetes mellitus hence accurate and early diagnosis to induce effective treatment of MetS in Indian population will be pivotal in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes.

PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives