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Volume 5(2); April 2014
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Editorial
Sound in the Air
Hae-Wol Cho, Chaeshin Chu
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014;5(2):75-76.   Published online April 30, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.04.001
  • 1,589 View
  • 18 Download
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Original Articles
Exposure to Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and the Risk of Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Jae-Hong Park, Eun Shil Cha, Yousun Ko, Myung-Sil Hwang, Jin-Hwan Hong, Won Jin Lee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014;5(2):77-84.   Published online April 30, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.02.001
  • 1,724 View
  • 24 Download
  • 19 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study extended and updated a meta-analysis of the association between exposure to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and the risk of breast cancer.
Methods
We reviewed the published literature on exposure to DDE and breast cancer risk to update a meta-analysis from 2004. The total of 35 studies included 16 hospital-based case–control studies, 11 population-based case–control studies, and 10 nested case–control studies identified through keyword searches in the PubMed and EMBASE databases.
Results
The summary odds ratio (OR) for the identified studies was 1.03 (95% confidence interval 0.95–1.12) and the overall heterogeneity in the OR was observed (I2 = 40.9; p = 0.006). Subgroup meta-analyses indicated no significant association between exposure to DDE and breast cancer risk by the type of design, study years, biological specimen, and geographical region of the study, except from population-based case–control studies with estimated DDE levels in serum published in 1990s.
Conclusion
Existing studies do not support the view that DDE increases the risk of breast cancer in humans. However, further studies incorporating more detailed information on DDT exposure and other potential risk factors for breast cancer are needed.
Under-reporting of Energy Intake from 24-hour Dietary Recalls in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Seunghee Kye, Sung-Ok Kwon, Soon-Young Lee, Jiyoon Lee, Bok Hee Kim, Hee-Jae Suh, Hyun-Kyung Moon
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014;5(2):85-91.   Published online April 30, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.02.002
  • 1,852 View
  • 12 Download
  • 32 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Chronic degenerative diseases are closely related to daily eating habits, nutritional status, and, in particular, energy intake. In clarifying these relationships it is very important for dietary surveys to report accurate information about energy intake. This study attempted to identify the prevalence of the under-reporting of energy intake and its related characteristics based on the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in the years 2007–2009.
Methods
The present study analyzed dietary intake data from 15,133 adults aged ≥19 years using 24-hour dietary recalls. Basal metabolic rates were calculated from the age- and gender-specific equations of Schofield and under-reporting was defined as an energy intake <0.9, represented by the ratio of energy intake to estimated basal metabolic rate.
Results
Under-reporters (URs) accounted for 14.4% of men and 23.0% of women and the under-reporting rate was higher in the age group 30–49 years for both men and women. The results from an analysis of the age-specific socioeconomic characteristics of participants classified as URs showed that under-reporting was high in women living alone and in women with only elementary school education or no education. The results from an analysis of the health-specific characteristics of URs showed that a large proportion of URs had poor self-rated health or were obese, or both, compared with non-URs. The proportion of participants who consumed less than the estimated average requirements for nutrients was significantly higher in URs compared with non-URs.
Conclusion
The under-reporting of energy intake was associated with age, gender, education level, income level, household status (single-person or multi-person), self-rated health, physical activity, and obesity.
Evaluation of Drug Abuse Relapse Event Rate Over Time in Frailty Model
Somaye Hosseini, Abbas Moghimbeigi, Ghodratollah Roshanaei, Farzaneh Momeniarbat
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014;5(2):92-95.   Published online April 30, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.02.003
  • 1,534 View
  • 14 Download
  • 8 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Drug dependence as a chronic disorder is reversible over time and has a cost burden for individuals, families, and society. An individual who has stopped taking drugs for a long time may start taking drugs again. The variables affecting the reuse of drugs are not well known. Therefore a study of the factors that increase the length of time away from drugs is essential.
Methods
This study used data collected by the Bushehr addiction treatment centers (Tolloe and Pasargadae) from 100 men with drug addiction from March 2006 to September 2010. The shared frailty model was used to study the influence of variables on the duration of time away from drug use. The most common method for entering intra-class (personal) correlation is the survival frailty model, which uses parametric survival data for the evaluation of recurrent events. A Weibull distribution for time to event with gamma shared frailty was used.
Results
The mean (standard deviation) age and age at onset of opium use of the sample were 33.85 (8.11) and 20.65 (6.87), respectively. About 30% of the men studied had chronic disease and 36% had a mental illness. The mean (frequency mean) of the amount of opium used were 4.73 (3.8) g and 2.54 (1.14) times per day. The desire to end drug use was 97% and 3% for the men with drug addiction and their families, respectively, at the time when the men stopped using opium. The age at onset of opium use [p = 0.046, hazards ratio (HR) = 1.30], history of chronic disease (p = 0.005, HR = 249.635), and marital status (p = 0.06, HR = 0.027) are important in the reuse of opium.
Conclusion
We found that opium addiction is related to other chronic diseases and to the age at onset of opium use. A prospective study following up individuals with drug addiction who try to stop drug use in addiction treatment centers could help to determine the risk factors of resuming drug use.
Virulence Factors of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates in an Iranian Referral Children's Hospital
Farah Sabouni, Shima Mahmoudi, Abbas Bahador, Babak Pourakbari, Reihaneh Hosseinpour Sadeghi, Mohammad Taghi Haghi Ashtiani, Bahram Nikmanesh, Setareh Mamishi
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014;5(2):96-100.   Published online April 30, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.03.002
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  • 28 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The clinical importance of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is attributed to notable virulence factors, surface proteins, toxins, and enzymes as well as the rapid development of drug resistance. The aim of this study was to compare the occurrence of virulence factors produced by S. aureus strains isolated from children in an Iranian referral children's hospital.
Methods
The presence of genes encoding for the enterotoxins A (sea), B (seb), C (sec), D (sed), TSST-1 (tsst), exfoliative toxin A (eta), and exfoliative toxin B (etb) were detected by Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers. In addition, the standardized Kirby-Bauer disc-diffusion method was performed on Mueller-Hinton agar.
Results
In total, 133 S. aureus isolates were obtained from different patients. Of these S. aureus isolates, 64 (48%) were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and all of these tested positive for the mecA gene. Regarding the classical enterotoxin genes, sea gene (40.6%) was the most prevalent followed by seb (19.6%), tsst (12.8%), eta (11.3%), etb (9%), sed (4.5%), and sec (3%). Among methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates, seb and tsst were the more prevalent toxins in comparison with MRSA isolates (p < 0.05), while the frequency of sea, sed, eta, and etb genes were higher among MRSA isolates (p > 0.05).
Conclusion
In our study enterotoxin A was produced by 40.6% of the isolates (48% from MRSA and 33% from MSSA isolates) which was higher than in previous reports. According to our results, strict hygiene and preventative measures during food processing are highly recommended.
Assessment of the Intensive Countermeasures in the 2009 Pandemic Influenza in Korea
Jin Hyuk Choi, Yunhwan Kim, Seoyun Choe, Sunmi Lee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014;5(2):101-107.   Published online April 30, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.03.003
  • 1,628 View
  • 16 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
It is critical to implement effective multiple countermeasures to mitigate or retain the spread of pandemic influenza. We propose a mathematical pandemic influenza model to assess the effectiveness of multiple countermeasures implemented in 2009.
Methods
Age-specific parameters, including the transmission rate, the proportion of asymptomatic individuals, the vaccination rate, the social distancing rate, and the antiviral treatment rate are estimated using the least-square method calibrated to the incidence data.
Results
The multiple interventions (intensive vaccination, social distancing, antivrial treatment) were successfully implemented resulting in the dramatic reduction in the total number of incidence.
Conclusion
The model output is sensitive to age-specific parameters and this leads to the fact that a more elaborate age group model should be developed and extensive further studies must be followed.
Exposure–Response Relationship Between Aircraft Noise and Sleep Quality: A Community-based Cross-sectional Study
Soo Jeong Kim, Sang Kug Chai, Keou Won Lee, Jae-Beom Park, Kyoung-Bok Min, Hyun Gwon Kil, Chan Lee, Kyung Jong Lee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014;5(2):108-114.   Published online April 30, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.03.004
  • 1,983 View
  • 25 Download
  • 17 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Exposure to aircraft noise has been shown to have adverse health effects, causing annoyance and affecting the health-related quality of life, sleep, and mental states of those exposed to it. This study aimed to determine sleep quality in participants residing near an airfield and to evaluate the relationship between the levels of aircraft noise and sleep quality.
Methods
Neighboring regions of a military airfield were divided into three groups: a high exposure group, a low exposure group, and a control group. A total of 1082 participants (aged 30–79 years) completed a comprehensive self-administered questionnaire requesting information about demographics, medical history, lifestyle, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index.
Results
Of the 1082 participants, 1005 qualified for this study. The prevalence of sleep disturbance was 45.5% in the control group, 71.8% in the low exposure group, and 77.1% in the high exposure group (p for trend < 0.001). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, we determined the exposure–response relationship between the degree of aircraft noise and sleep quality. Of the participants with a normal mental status, the prevalence of sleep disturbance was 2.61-fold higher in the low exposure group and 3.52-fold higher in the high exposure group than in the control group.
Conclusion
The relationship between aircraft noise and health should be further evaluated through a large-scale follow-up study.
Correspondence
Detecting Influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 Virus Infection Using Immunochromatographic Assay
Viroj Wiwanitkit
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014;5(2):115-115.   Published online April 30, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.03.001
  • 1,498 View
  • 17 Download
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Corrigendum
Corrigendum to “Investigation of Biofilm Formation and its Association with the Molecular and Clinical Characteristics of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus” [Volume 4, Issue 5, October 2013, Pages 225–232]
Jeong-Ok Cha, Jae Il Yoo, Jung Sik Yoo, Hae-Sun Chung, Sun-Hee Park, Hwa Su Kim, Yeong Seon Lee, Gyung Tae Chung
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014;5(2):116-116.   Published online April 30, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.04.002
  • 1,589 View
  • 19 Download
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PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives