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Volume 5(1); February 2014
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Editorial
Journal Publishing: Never Ending Saga
Hae-Wol Cho, Chaeshin Chu
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014;5(1):1-2.   Published online February 28, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.01.005
  • 1,167 View
  • 18 Download
  • 1 Citations
PDF
Original Articles
Role of Active and Inactive Cytotoxic Immune Response in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Dynamics
Hernan Dario Toro Zapata, Angelica Graciela Caicedo Casso, Derdei Bichara, Sunmi Lee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014;5(1):3-8.   Published online February 28, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.01.001
  • 1,352 View
  • 25 Download
  • 8 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Mathematical models can be helpful to understand the complex dynamics of human immunodeficiency virus infection within a host. Most of work has studied the interactions of host responses and virus in the presence of active cytotoxic immune cells, which decay to zero when there is no virus. However, recent research highlights that cytotoxic immune cells can be inactive but never be depleted.
Methods
We propose a mathematical model to investigate the human immunodeficiency virus dynamics in the presence of both active and inactive cytotoxic immune cells within a host. We explore the impact of the immune responses on the dynamics of human immunodeficiency virus infection under different disease stages.
Results
Standard mathematical and numerical analyses are presented for this new model. Specifically, the basic reproduction number is computed and local and global stability analyses are discussed.
Conclusion
Our results can give helpful insights when designing more effective drug schedules in the presence of active and inactive immune responses.
Community-Based Risk Communication Survey: Risk Prevention Behaviors in Communities during the H1N1 crisis, 2010
Soo Jeong Kim, Jin A. Han, Tae-Yong Lee, Tae-Yoon Hwang, Keun-Sang Kwon, Ki Soo Park, Kyung Jong Lee, Moon Shik Kim, Soon Young Lee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014;5(1):9-19.   Published online February 28, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2013.12.001
  • 1,561 View
  • 17 Download
  • 15 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of and factors associated with H1N1 preventive behaviors in a community-based population.
Methods
A cross-sectional study was conducted in three urban and two rural communities in Korea. Interviews were conducted with 3462 individuals (1608 men and 1854 women) aged ≥ 19 years during February–March 2010. Influenza-related information including anxiety, preventive behaviors and their perceived effectiveness, vaccination status, past influenza-like illness symptoms, and sources of and trust in information was obtained.
Results
Among 3462 participants, 173 reported experiencing influenza-like illness symptoms within the past 12 months. The mean H1N1 preventive behavior score was 25.5 ± 5.5 (out of a possible 40). The percent of participants reporting high perceived effectiveness and high anxiety was 46.2% and 21.4%, respectively. After controlling for potential confounders, H1N1 preventive behavior scores were predicted by a high (β = 3.577, p < 0.001) or moderate (β = 2.529, p < 0.001) perception of their effectiveness. Similarly, moderate (β = 1.516, p < 0.001) and high (β = 4.103, p < 0.001) anxiety scores predicted high preventive behavior scores.
Conclusion
Effective methods of promoting population behavior change may be nationwide campaigns through mass media, as well as education and promotion by health care providers and broadcasters.
The Determinants of Participation in Physical Activity in Malaysia
Yong Kang Cheah, Bee Koon Poh
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014;5(1):20-27.   Published online February 28, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2013.12.002
  • 1,585 View
  • 18 Download
  • 23 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
In light of the importance of physical activity, the aim of the present study is to examine the factors affecting participation in physical activity among adults in Malaysia.
Methods
A logistic regression model and the Third National Health and Morbidity Survey consisting of 30,992 respondents were used.
Results
Age, income, gender, education, marital status, region, house locality, job characteristics, and medical conditions are significantly associated with participation in physical activity. In particular, old individuals, high income earners, females, the well-educated, widowed or divorced individuals, East Malaysians, urban dwellers, the unemployed, and individuals who are not diagnosed with hypercholesterolemia are less likely to be physically active than others.
Conclusion
Because sociodemographic and health factors play an important role in determining physical activity, the government should take them into account when formulating policy.
The Relationship between Health Behavior and General Health Status: Based on 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Chunhoo Cheon, So-Mi Oh, Soobin Jang, Jeong-Su Park, Sunju Park, Bo-Hyoung Jang, Yong-Cheol Shin, Seong-Gyu Ko
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014;5(1):28-33.   Published online February 28, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2013.12.003
  • 1,348 View
  • 26 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between health behavior and general health status.
Methods
We used data from the 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Mental health was measured by stress recognition and depression. Dietary habit was measured by mixed grain diet. Life pattern was measured by sleeping time and working pattern. Physical activity was measured by walking and exercise. We defined general health status as Euro Quality of Life-5 Dimension (EQ-5Dindex), Euro Quality of Life Visual Analogue Scale (EQ-5Dvas), number of people experienced lying in a sickbed for the last one month, number of days lying in a sickbed for the last one month, and activity limitations.
Results
Mental health, dietary habit, life pattern, and physical activity have seven factors. Most of the factors have a significant correlation with EQ-5Dindex, EQ-5Dvas, number of people experienced lying in a sickbed for the last one month, number of days lying in a sickbed for the last one month, and activity limitations.
Conclusion
Health behavior and general health status have a positive correlation.
Emerging Pathogens and Vehicles of Food- and Water-borne Disease Outbreaks in Korea, 2007–2012
Shinje Moon, Il-Woong Sohn, Yeongseon Hong, Hyungmin Lee, Ji-Hyuk Park, Geun-Yong Kwon, Sangwon Lee, Seung-Ki Youn
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014;5(1):34-39.   Published online February 28, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2013.12.004
  • 1,348 View
  • 16 Download
  • 13 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Food- and water-borne disease outbreaks (FBDOs) are an important public health problem worldwide. This study investigated the trends in FBDOs in Korea and established emerging causal pathogens and causal vehicles.
Methods
We analyzed FBDOs in Korea by year, location, causal pathogens, and causal vehicles from 2007 to 2012. Information was collected from the FBDOs database in the Korean Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Results
During 2007–2012, a total of 1794 FBDOs and 48,897 patients were reported. After 2007, FBDOs and patient numbers steadily decreased over the next 2 years and then plateaued until 2011. However, in 2012, FBDOs increased slightly accompanied by a large increase in the number of affected patients. Our results highlight the emergence of norovirus and pathogenic Escherichia coli other than enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) in schools in 2012. We found that pickled vegetables is an emerging causal vehicle responsible for this problem.
Conclusion
On the basis of this study we recommend intensified inspections of pickled vegetable manufacturers and the strengthening of laboratory surveillance of relevant pathogens.
What Does a Mathematical Model Tell About the Impact of Reinfection in Korean Tuberculosis Infection?
Sara Kim, Seoyun Choe, Junseong Kim, Sanga Nam, Yeon Shin, Sunmi Lee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014;5(1):40-45.   Published online February 28, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.01.002
  • 1,296 View
  • 14 Download
  • 7 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
According to the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, new active tuberculosis (TB) cases have increased since 2001. Some key factors explain and characterize the transmission dynamics of Korean TB infection, such as a higher ratio of latent individuals and a new reporting system implemented in 2001, among others.
Methods
We propose a mathematical TB model that includes exogenous reinfection to gain a better understanding of the recent trend for TB incidence. We divide the simulation time window into two periods, 1970–2000 and 2001–2012, according to the implementation date of a new TB detection system.
Results
Two sets of parameters, including the transmission rate, the latent period, the recovery rate, and the proportion of exogenous reinfection, are estimated using the least-squares method and calibrated to data on the incidence of active TB.
Conclusion
Among some key parameters in the model, the case finding effort turned out to be the most significant impacting component on the reduction in the active TB cases.
A Study of High-Risk Drinking Patterns Among Generations Based on the 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Yeongseon Hong, Sungsoo Chun, Mieun Yun, Lydia Sarponmaa Asante, Chaeshin Chu
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014;5(1):46-53.   Published online February 28, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.01.006
  • 1,185 View
  • 15 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The aim of this study was to identify how the drinking patterns of a generation on the paternal side affect those of the next generations by estimating the number of high-risk drinkers by generation according to the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test.
Methods
Data were selected from the 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and were analyzed using SPSS 18.0.
Results
Later generations started drinking earlier (62.4%, 71.8% and 91.1%, respectively). The majority of the second generation consumed more than 2–4 drinks a month (83.7%), but only a small proportion experienced difficulty in everyday life (9.6%), felt repentance (9.6%), or experienced memory loss (17.9%) after drinking. Unmarried third-generation adults with high-risk-drinking fathers reported more frequent alcohol consumption [odds ratio (OR) 1.441), greater amounts on one occasion (>7 cups for men, OR 1.661; > 5 cups for women, OR 2.078), temperance failure (OR 2.377), and repentance after drinking (OR 1.577). Unmarried third-generation adults with high-risk-drinking grandfathers consumed greater amounts of alcohol on one occasion (OR 3.642), and unmarried third-generation women more frequently consumed large amounts of alcohol (>5 cups, OR 4.091). Unmarried third-generation adults with high-risk-drinking fathers were more likely to exhibit high-risk drinking patterns (OR 1.608). Second-generation individuals from a high-risk-drinking first generation were more likely to engage in high-risk drinking (OR 3.705).
Conclusion
High-risk drinking by a generation significantly affects the high-risk drinking patterns of subsequent generations.
Study on the Prevalence of Leptospirosis among Fever Cases Reported from Private Clinics in the Urban areas of Villupuram District, Tamil Nadu, India
Parasuraman Basker, Pichai Kannan, Karumana Gounder Kolandaswamy
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014;5(1):54-67.   Published online February 28, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.01.003
  • 1,190 View
  • 19 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
To know the prevalence of leptospirosis cases reported in private clinics among fever cases in Villupuram District, Tamil Nadu, India to know its real magnitude of the problem and to diagnose Leptospirosis among fever cases from differential diagnosis.
Methods
1502 Blood serum samples collected from three urban towns namely Kallakurichi (Latitude: 11° 73′ N; Longitude: 78° 97′ E), Villupuram (Latitude: 11° 75′ N; Longitude: 79° 92′ E) and Thindivanam (Latitude: 12° 25′ N; Longitude: 79° 65′ E) in fifteen clinics based on case definition of leptospirosis delineated by the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP), Government of India. Samples were tested in the laboratory of the Zonal Entomological Team (ZET), Cuddalore with Macroscopic Slide Agglutination Test (MSAT) and Ig-M ELISA.
Result
There were 65 positive cases detected from 1502 blood serum samples in both MSAT and Ig-M ELISA. It could be known that there was 4% cases contributed from private clinics among fever cases. From this study, further it was known that all age groups of people affected irrespective of sexes based on their living condition associated with the environment prevailed of the disease.
Conclusion
From this study, it was quantified that 4% of cases reported in private clinics among fever cases and its findings ascertained both the importance of differential diagnosis as well as reports that should be included to the Government for knowing its real magnitude for planning.
Experiences of Health Related Lifestyles in High Body Fat but Non-obese Female College Students in Korea
Jeongsoo Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014;5(1):68-73.   Published online February 28, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.01.004
  • 3,041 View
  • 17 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The purpose of this study was to describe and understand the lifestyles of non-obese female college students with high body fat (HBF).
Methods
The interview data were collected from 18 female students [body mass index (BMI) <23 kg/m2 and body fat ratio ≥30%] and analyzed by using descriptive phenomenology of Colaizzi. The procedural steps described the phenomenon of interest, collected participants' descriptions of the phenomenon, extracted the meaning of significant statements, organized the meanings into clusters, wrote exhaustive descriptions and then incorporated data into an exhaustive description.
Results
The results in 153 restatements, 36 constructed meanings, 22 themes, seven theme clusters, and three categories were deduced. The three categories were: diminished daily concerns of health, changes in living habits by stressors, and perceived unbalance in health.
Conclusion
This study describes non-obese female university students' experiences with HBF and their lifestyles. The findings have important implications for health promotion for non-obese female university students with HBF and must be considered when developing education courses for preparing adults.

PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives