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Volume 3(1); March 2012
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Articleses
Human Diseases 101: Nature Versus Nurture
Hae-Wol Cho, Chaeshin Chu
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2012;3(1):1-2.   Published online December 31, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2012.02.001
  • 1,211 View
  • 23 Download
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Study on the Correlation of Premises Condition Index and the Presence of Larvae of Aedes Species Mosquitoes in Human Dwellings of the Cuddalore District of Tamil Nadu, India
Parasuraman Basker, Radhakrishnan Ezhil
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2012;3(1):3-7.   Published online December 31, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2011.11.046
  • 1,221 View
  • 12 Download
  • 5 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Conclusions It is concluded that this study helps in conducting rapid survey to identify the presence of Aedes larvae with a minimum number of staff for both inspection and treatment of Aedes larvae during the epidemic situation. Objectives To predict dwellings for the presence of Aedes larvae rapidly based on Premises Condition Index (PCI) factors, we studied the possible presence of Aedes species mosquitoes larvae among houses in the Chidambaram urban of Cuddalore District in Tamil Nadu, India based on the scores of variables in PCI, namely House, Yard and degree of shadow. Data of these variables were collected in September and October 2006 from 1813 houses in the Chidambaram urban area during the intensive vector control activities employed for the prevention and control of Chikungunya.
Methods
The association between presence of larvae and the variables of PCI was tested by Chi-square and Correlation. The predictability of the presence of Aedes larvae based on PCI factors was computed by logistic regression.
Results
The study shows 301 containers in 132 houses were found positive with Aedes species out of 1813 houses surveyed. It was further observed that the probability of presence of positive premises was four times higher in the premises with 75% shadow compared with premises with a 25% shadow. These findings showed a significant association (p < 0.001) with positive premises.
Viral Interferon Regulatory Factor 1 of Kaposi’s Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Interacts with a Translocation Liposarcoma Protein-Associated Serine-Arginine Protein
Sunmi Kim, Jae Eun Jong, Taegun Seo
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2012;3(1):8-13.   Published online December 31, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2012.01.001
  • 1,316 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
To confirm that Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpes virus openreading frame K9, viral interferon regulatory factor 1 (vIRF1), interacts with splicing factor, translocation liposarcoma protein-associated serine-arginine protein (TASR), in vivo and to establish whether interactions between vIRF1 and TASRs influence alternative splicing.
Methods
Association between vIRF1 and TASRs was confirmed with the glutathione S-transferase pull-down assay and coimmunoprecipitation. Further colocalization was shown by immunofluorescence. The in vivo splicing assay was performed to confirm the alterations in the splicing pattern.
Results
vIRF1 interacts with both TASR1 and 2 in vivo. vIRF1 has been shown to colocalize with TASR proteins in 293 T cells. However, an in vivo splicing revealed no alterations in the splicing pattern via interaction.
Conclusions
The study data suggest that vIRF1 interacts with the TASR protein. However, vIRF1 interactions do not affect TASR-mediated alternative splicing.
Epidemiologic Features of Animal Bite Cases Occurring in Rabies-Endemic Areas of Korea, 2005 to 2009
Myung Guk Han, Ryou Jung Sang, Young Eui Jeong, Young Ran Ju, Jung Eun Cho, Jun-Sun Park
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2012;3(1):14-18.   Published online December 31, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2012.01.002
  • 1,360 View
  • 12 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Human rabies is a reemerging infectious disease in Korea. There was no human rabies case for 14 years until the disease had reoccurred in 1999. To prevent occurrence of human rabies, surveillance for animal bite patients in rabies endemic areas in Korea was conducted since 2005 as a part of a human rabies control program. The animal bite cases were analyzed to determine whether patients were treated according to the post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) guideline of the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Methods
Information of animal bite cases that occurred from 2005 to 2009 in rabies high-risk regions were collected by cooperation with Regional Public Health Centers in 18 cities/districts of rabies endemic areas.
Results
A total of 2458 animal bite cases were reported. Dogs accounted for 86% of animal bites and 67% of the animals were not vaccinated against rabies virus. For PEP, among rabies-vaccinated animals, 92.7% were observed for clinical signs and 1.4% underwent necropsy. Among unvaccinated animals, 72.7% were observed for clinical signs and 4.1% underwent necropsy. The remaining animals were not available for examination. Of the animal bite patients, 32.5% received PEP and 51.6% were treated by first aid or by washing the wound.
Conclusions
Given that no human rabies cases were reported since 2005 and animal rabies was continuously reported in endemic areas of Korea, the human rabies control program implemented in 2005 appears to have a significant role in the prevention and control of human rabies.
Application of the Microagglutination Test for Serologic Diagnosis of Human Brucellosis
Sang-Hee Park, Yoo-Hoon Lee, Hyuk Chu, Seon-Do Hwang, Kyu-Jam Hwang, Hee-Yeol Choi, Mi-Yeoun Park
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2012;3(1):19-23.   Published online December 31, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2012.01.003
  • 1,348 View
  • 14 Download
  • 13 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Brucellosis is one of the most common zoonoses in the world, and occurs mainly in farmers, slaughterhouse workers, and veterinarians via direct or indirect contact with infected animals or their products. The clinical symptoms of human brucellosis are nonspecific, such as fever, headache, chills, and sweating. Diagnosis and treatment of brucellosis requires laboratory tests. Although the serum tube agglutination test (SAT) is the standardized gold method, it is laborious, time consuming, and requires a number of reagents. A microagglutination test (MAT) variant of the SAT or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is recommended for serological diagnoses. For the simple and rapid diagnosis of brucellosis, the MAT was standardized using samples for the SAT to define positive and negative categories, and we then compared the sensitivity and specificity of the MAT and ELISA.
Methods
Thirty SAT-positive sera and 60 SAT-negative sera were used in this study. Antibody titers of ≥1:160 were considered positive readings in both the SAT and MAT. Brucella abortus antigens and Brucella-positive control antiserum were used in the SAT and MAT. ELISAs of IgM and IgG were performed according to the manufacturers’ instructions.
Results
The titers of the MAT differed according to antigen concentration. The optimal concentration of B abortus antigen was determined to compare the sensitivity and specificity between the MAT and SAT. The sensitivity and specificity of the MAT were 93.3% and 96.7%, respectively, for IgG with reference to ELISA, and 96.7% and 98.3%, respectively, for IgM.
Conclusions
The optimal concentration of antigen for the MAT was 1:10. The MAT is less time consuming and requires less antigen and serum than the SAT. The results of the MAT showed good agreement with those of ELISA. The results of this study suggest that the MAT could be useful for diagnosis of brucellosis.
HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Stigmatizing Attitudes, and Related Behaviors and Factors that Affect Stigmatizing Attitudes against HIV/AIDS among Korean Adolescents
Aeree Sohn, SungBok Park
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2012;3(1):24-30.   Published online December 31, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2012.01.004
  • 1,475 View
  • 13 Download
  • 25 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study examined the sex differentials for specific aspects of knowledge regarding HIV, stigmatizing attitudes toward people with HIV/AIDS (PWHAs) and sexual behavior. In addition, the factors that affect stigmatizing attitudes toward PWHAs were investigated.
Methods
The population of this study comprised of senior high students in Seoul, Korea. Eight high schools were selected randomly and 1566 adolescents participated in the survey. A total sample of 1548 cases (18 cases were excluded) was used for analysis. A self-administered questionnaire measuring their general and transmission and discriminatory attitudes was used.
Results
The level of HIV/AIDS knowledge among Korean adolescents was low, as indicated by a correct response rate of 54% (7.0 out of 13). The students answered correctly about HIV transmission by kissing at 50.2%, toilets at 59.4%, cup sharing at 57.4%, and daily school life at 60.5%. The level of discriminatory attitudes towards HIV-infected persons was high. Boys reported a higher proportion of sexual experience (7.0% vs. 2.6%, OR=2.89, p < 0.001). Only 39.0% used a condom during their last sexual encounter and more girls (53.3%) than boys (35.3%) reported using a condom.
Conclusions
These findings highlight the need for increasing HIV knowledge, reducing HIV stigma, and providing sex education focusing on safer sex practices.
Seroepidemiology of Hepatitis A Infection in Northeastern China, Korea, and Japan
Haesun Yun, Hyeok-Jin Lee, Youngsil Yoon, Kisang Kim, Sungsoo Kim, Myung-Hee Shin, Miyuki Taniguchi, Soo Ryang Kim, Mi Kyung Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2012;3(1):31-35.   Published online December 31, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2012.01.005
  • 1,260 View
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  • 4 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The epidemiological patterns of endemic hepatitis A virus (HAV) are unclear in northeastern Asia depending on the ethnicity of the country in question. The purpose of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of HAV in northeastern China, South Korea, and Japan.
Methods
A total of 1,500 serum samples were collected from five groups of inhabitants (300 each) who were over 40 years of age (Korean Chinese, indigenous Chinese, South Korean, Korean living in Japan, and indigenous Japanese). The samples were screened for antibodies to HAV using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Results
Positivity for HAV antibodies was 93.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 90.9–96.4) in Koreans living in northeastern China, 99.7% (95% CI: 99.0–100.3) in indigenous Chinese, 98.0% (95% CI: 96.4–99.6) in indigenous Koreans, 33.3% (95% CI: 28.0–38.7) in Koreans living in Japan, and 20.4% (95% CI: 15.8–25.0) in indigenous Japanese persons. The overall anti-HAV prevalence was not significantly different between northeastern China and South Korea, but it was different in Japan.
Conclusions
These results indicate that differences in seroprevalence can be attributed to geological, environmental, and socioeconomic conditions rather than ethnicity.
Phylogenetic Analysis of the Rotavirus Genotypes Originated from Children < 5 Years of Age in 16 Cities in South Korea, between 2000 and 2004
Ho-Kyung Oh, Seung-Hwa Hong, Byung-Yoon Ahn, Hye-Kyoung Min
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2012;3(1):36-42.   Published online December 31, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2012.01.006
  • 1,269 View
  • 16 Download
  • 6 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The purpose of this study was to examine the diversity of the G and P types of human rotavirus strains isolated in South Korea during 2000 to 2004.
Methods
We selected 38 Group A rotavirus isolates among 652 fecal samples, which were collected from infants and children < 5 years of age with acute gastroenteritis or diarrhea admitted in 8 hospitals representative of five provinces of South Korea between 2000 and 2004. Rotavirus P- and G-genotypes were determined by nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis was performed.
Results
One G1P[4] consisted G1-Id-P[4]-V; one G1P[6] consisted G1-Id-P[6]-Ia; nine G1P[8] consisted G1-Ib-P[8]-Ia (n=3), G1-Ic-P[8]-Ia (n=1), and G1-Id-P[8]-Ia (n=5); 13 G2P[4] consisted G2-V-P[4]-V; two G3P[4] consisted G3-IIId-P[4]-V; five G3P[8] consisted G3-IIId-P[8]-Ia; four G4P[6] consisted G4-Ie-P[6]-Ia; two G4P[8] consisted G4-Ie-P[8]-II; one G9P[6] consisted G9-III-P[6]-Ia.
Conclusions
A considerable amount of rotavirus genotypic diversity was detected in South Korea from 2000 to 2004. These findings are important to develop the effective vaccines and to undertake epidemiologic studies.
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Outbreak and its Incubation Period: Is it Short or Long?
Dong-Woo Lee, Jin Gwack, Seun-Ki Youn
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2012;3(1):43-47.   Published online December 31, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2012.01.007
  • 1,137 View
  • 19 Download
  • 5 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The aim of this study is to determine the incubation period of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), which creates several outbreaks in a year in South Korea.
Methods
We reviewed all water and food-borne outbreaks data reported to the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) from 2009 to 2010 and determined their characteristics. Through this process, we can presume the incubation period of EPEC among outbreaks in South Korea.
Results
A total of 497 water and food-borne outbreaks were reported to KCDC and 66 (13.28%) are defined as E coli-origin outbreaks. EPEC was the most common subtype of E coli, being confirmed as a causative organism in 26 outbreaks. Overall attack rate was 15.85% (range 0.9–100). The subjects were eight outbreaks that have a clear history of single exposure and we can estimate the incubation time of EPEC as minimum 0.5 hours to maximum 34.0 hours with a mean 12.9 hours (range 4.5–24.0). The cases of those cannot completely rule out the chance of multiple exposure from same source or place have minimum 1.0 hour, to a maximum of 195.5 hours and a mean 30.5 (range 22.7–61.0) hours of incubation period.
Conclusions
This serial analysis suggests that EPEC has actually shorter mean incubation period as much as 12 hours. When this period is longer than 1 day or over, then the epidemiologic investigator should consider the chance of repeated or continuous exposure by making it clear whether there is any chance of any other exposure in common.
In vivo Noninvasive Small Animal Molecular Imaging
Hyewon Youn, Kee-Jong Hong
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2012;3(1):48-59.   Published online December 31, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2012.02.002
  • 1,404 View
  • 11 Download
  • 12 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
The remarkable efforts that are made on molecular imaging technologies demonstrate its potential importance and range of applications. The generation of disease-specific animal models, and the developments of target-specific probes and genetically encoded reporters are another important component. Continued improvements in the instrumentation, the identification of novel targets and genes, and the availability of improved imaging probes should be made. Multimodal imaging probes should provide easier transitions between laboratory studies, including small animal studies and clinical applications. Here, we reviewed basic strategies of noninvasive in vivo imaging methods in small animals to introducing the concept of molecular imaging.
Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2012;3(1):60-60.   Published online December 31, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2012.03.001
  • 1,254 View
  • 18 Download
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A Diversity of Antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus spp. in a Public Transportation System [Volume 2, Issue 3, December 2011, Pages 158 - 163]
Pamela J. Yeh, Dawn M. Simon, Jess A. Millar, H. Forrest Alexander, Darleen Franklin
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2012;3(1):61-61.   Published online December 31, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2012.03.002
  • 1,340 View
  • 12 Download
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Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2012;3(1):62-62.   Published online December 31, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2012.03.003
  • 1,167 View
  • 17 Download
  • 2 Citations
PDF
Longitudinal and Cross-Sectional Genetic Diversity in the Korean Peninsula Based on the P vivax Merozoite Surface Protein Gene [Volume 2, Issue 3, December 2011, Pages 158 - 163]
Jung-Yeon Kim, Eun-Jung Suh, Hyo-Soon Yu, Hyun-Sik Jung, In-Ho Park, Yien-Kyeoug Choi, Kyoung-Mi Choi, Shin-Hyeong Cho, Won-Ja Lee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2012;3(1):63-63.   Published online December 31, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2011.11.039.
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  • 11 Download
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PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives