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Volume 14(5); October 2023
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Editorial
To combat COVID-19 and prepare for future pandemics, public trust and communication are essential
Jong-Koo Lee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2023;14(5):329-332.   Published online October 31, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2023.0317
  • 682 View
  • 140 Download
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Review Article
Strategies to combat Gram-negative bacterial resistance to conventional antibacterial drugs: a review
Priyanka Bhowmik, Barkha Modi, Parijat Roy, Antarika Chowdhury
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2023;14(5):333-346.   Published online October 18, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2022.0323
  • 2,045 View
  • 165 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
The emergence of antimicrobial resistance raises the fear of untreatable diseases. Antimicrobial resistance is a multifaceted and dynamic phenomenon that is the cumulative result of different factors. While Gram-positive pathogens, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium difficile, were previously the most concerning issues in the field of public health, Gram-negative pathogens are now of prime importance. The World Health Organization’s priority list of pathogens mostly includes multidrug-resistant Gram-negative organisms particularly carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales, carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. The spread of Gram-negative bacterial resistance is a global issue, involving a variety of mechanisms. Several strategies have been proposed to control resistant Gram-negative bacteria, such as the development of antimicrobial auxiliary agents and research into chemical compounds with new modes of action. Another emerging trend is the development of naturally derived antibacterial compounds that aim for targets novel areas, including engineered bacteriophages, probiotics, metal-based antibacterial agents, odilorhabdins, quorum sensing inhibitors, and microbiome-modifying agents. This review focuses on the current status of alternative treatment regimens against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, aiming to provide a snapshot of the situation and some information on the broader context.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Efficacy of new generation biosorbents for the sustainable treatment of antibiotic residues and antibiotic resistance genes from polluted waste effluent
    Barkha Madhogaria, Sangeeta Banerjee, Atreyee Kundu, Prasanta Dhak
    Infectious Medicine.2024; 3(1): 100092.     CrossRef
  • Evaluation of Plant-Based Silver Nanoparticles for Antioxidant Activity and Promising Wound-Healing Applications
    Maria Qubtia, Shazia Akram Ghumman, Sobia Noreen, Huma Hameed, Shazia Noureen, Rizwana Kausar, Ali Irfan, Pervaiz Akhtar Shah, Hafsa Afzal, Misbah Hameed, Mohammad Raish, Maria Rana, Ajaz Ahmad, Katarzyna Kotwica-Mojzych, Yousef A. Bin Jardan
    ACS Omega.2024; 9(10): 12146.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Drug resistance and the genotypic characteristics of rpoB and katG in rifampicin- and/or isoniazid-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in central Vietnam
Thi Binh Nguyen Nguyen, Thi Kieu Diem Nguyen, Van Hue Trương, Thi Tuyet Ngoc Tran, van Bao Thang Phan, Thi Tuyen Nguyen, Hoang Bach Nguyen, Viet Quynh Tram Ngo, Van Tuan Mai, Paola Molicotti
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2023;14(5):347-355.   Published online October 18, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2023.0124
  • 1,085 View
  • 75 Download
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Tuberculosis (TB) and drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) are national health burdens in Vietnam. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of rifampicin (RIF) and/or isoniazid (isonicotinic acid hydrazide, INH) resistance in patients with suspected TB, and applied appropriate techniques to help rapidly target DR-TB. Methods: In total, 1,547 clinical specimens were collected and cultured using the BACTEC MGIT system (Becton Dickinson and Co.). A resazurin microtiter assay (REMA) was used to determine the proportions of RIF and/or INH resistance. A real-time polymerase chain reaction panel with TaqMan probes was employed to identify the mutations of rpoB and katG associated with DR-TB in clinical isolates. Genotyping of the identified mutations was also performed. Results: A total of 468 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were identified using the REMA. Of these isolates, 106 (22.6%) were found to be resistant to 1 or both antibiotics. Of the resistant isolates, 74 isolates (69.8%) were resistant to isoniazid (INH) only, while 1 isolate (0.94%) was resistant to RIF only. Notably, 31 isolates (29.24%) were resistant to both antibiotics. Of the 41 phenotypically INH-resistant isolates, 19 (46.3%) had the Ser315Thr mutation. There were 8 different rpoB mutations in 22 (68.8%) of the RIF-resistant isolates. The most frequently detected mutations were at codons 531 (37.5%), 526 (18.8%), and 516 (6.3%). Conclusion: To help prevent new cases of DR-TB in Vietnam, it is crucial to gain a comprehensive understanding of the genotypic DR-TB isolates.
The associations of health behaviors and working hours with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels in Korean wage workers: a cross-sectional study
Choong-Won Seo, Eun-A Park, Tae-Hyung Yoon
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2023;14(5):356-367.   Published online September 21, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2023.0052
  • 1,524 View
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
We investigated differences in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels by age group according to working hours, socioeconomic level, health behavior and status, and occupational class, and aimed to identify factors affecting hs-CRP levels in various age groups using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination from 2016 to 2018. Methods: The study included a total of 4,786 male wage workers across the nation, aged between 19 and 65. Data from 4,674 workers were analyzed using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: Obesity, metabolic syndrome, and weekly working hours were associated with hs-CRP, a biomarker of inflammation. Participants with a body mass index (BMI) ≥25.0 kg/m2 showed significantly higher hs-CRP levels than those with a BMI 23.0 to 25.0 kg/m2. Workers with high-risk drinking and metabolic syndrome showed significantly higher hs-CRP levels in the 50 to 65 years group. Obesity, walking 0 to 149 min/wk, and working ≥61 hours a week were associated with significantly higher hs-CRP levels in the 35 to 49 years group. The factors that significantly affected hs-CRP levels were different among age groups. Conclusion: Plans to adjust working hours should be considered health behaviors, such as drinking and physical activity, and health conditions, such as metabolic syndrome and obesity, according to workers’ age.
The risk associated with psychiatric disturbances in patients with diabetes in Indonesia (2018): a cross-sectional observational study
Siti Isfandari, Betty Roosihermiatie, Sulistyowati Tuminah, Laurentia Konadi Mihardja
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2023;14(5):368-378.   Published online October 18, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2023.0144
Correction in: Osong Public Health Res Perspect 2023;14(6):530
  • 1,364 View
  • 68 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The global prevalence of psychiatric disturbances is rising, detrimentally affecting the quality of care and treatment outcomes for individuals, particularly those with diabetes.This study investigated the association of risk factors for psychiatric disturbances among productive-age patients with diabetes (ages 30−59 years), considering sociodemographic characteristics and co-existing diseases. The risk factors considered included sociodemographic factors (e.g., residence, age, sex, marital status, education, and occupation) and co-existing diseases (e.g., hypertension, heart disease, stroke, renal failure, rheumatism, asthma, and cancer). Methods: This cross-sectional study utilized data from the 2018 Indonesian National Health Survey (Riskesdas). The study population comprised respondents aged between 30 and 59 years who had diabetes and had completed the 20-question self-reporting questionnaire (SRQ-20). After the exclusion of incomplete SRQ-20 data, the sample included 8,917 respondents. Data were analyzed using logistic regression. Results: Approximately 18.29% of individuals with diabetes displayed symptoms indicative of psychiatric disturbances. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors such as age, sex, education level, occupation, marital status, and place of residence, patients with diabetes who had co-existing conditions such as hypertension, heart diseases, rheumatic disorders, asthma, or cancer had a higher risk for developing psychiatric disturbances than those with diabetes alone (adjusted odds ratio, 6.67; 95% confidence interval, 4.481−9.928; p<0.001). Conclusion: The elevated risk of psychiatric disturbances among patients with diabetes who had comorbidities underscores the importance of addressing mental health issues in the management of diabetes, especially in patients with concurrent disease conditions.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Correction to “The risk associated with psychiatric disturbances in patients with diabetes in Indonesia (2018): a cross-sectional observational study” [Osong Public Health Res Perspect 2023;14(5):368–78]
    Siti Isfandari, Betty Roosihermiatie, Sulistyowati Tuminah, Laurentia Konadi Mihardja
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2023; 14(6): 530.     CrossRef
Factors associated with the combination of general and abdominal obesity in middle-aged and older Korean women: a cross-sectional study
Jin Suk Ra
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2023;14(5):379-387.   Published online September 20, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2023.0089
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
To identify factors associated with general and abdominal obesity in middle-aged and older Korean women based on the biopsychosocial model. Methods: Data from 4,076 women aged ≥45 years who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2015 to 2020 were analyzed. Complex sampling analysis was performed using IBM SPSS ver. 26.0. Results: The combination of general and abdominal obesity was positively associated with age ≥65 years, postmenopausal status, and without breastfeeding experience among biomedical factors; depressive symptoms and prolonged (≥8 hours a day) sedentary behavior among psychosocial factors; and an educational level lower than middle or high school graduation and the first and second income quantiles among biosocial factors. Conclusion: Healthcare providers in communities and public societies should screen for risk factors for the combination of general and abdominal obesity while considering non-modifiable biomedical (e.g., age) and biosocial factors (e.g., educational level). In addition, intervention strategies should be developed by considering modifiable psychosocial factors such as sedentary behavior.
Estimating the prevalence of oral manifestations in COVID-19 patients: a systematic review
Ankita Gupta, Kriti Shrivastav, Amit Agrawal, Abhishek Purohit, Roshan Chanchlani
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2023;14(5):388-417.   Published online September 19, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2023.0033
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) present with a variety of oral manifestations. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review to estimate the prevalence of oral lesions among COVID-19 patients. Methods: An extensive literature search of several electronic bibliographic databases (PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, Litcovid) was conducted to retrieve all articles published in the English language from January 1, 2020 to March 31, 2023 that reported the prevalence of oral manifestations among COVID-19 patients. A meta-analysis of pooled prevalence was performed using Jamovi ver. 2.3 (2022). The I2 and Q statistics were used to assess heterogeneity between studies, and p-values <0.01 were considered statistically significant. Results: In total, 79 studies with data from 13,252 patients were included. The articles were predominantly published in 2020 (n=33), and Italy was the most common country (n=14). Most of the affected patients more than 50 years old and women (56.6%). The most common sites of involvement were the tongue (n=65), followed by the oral mucosa (n=37) and lips (n=19). High heterogeneity was found between studies. The most common oral manifestation was taste alteration, followed by xerostomia and ulceration, showing pooled prevalence rates of 48%, 35%, and 21%, respectively. Conclusion: COVID-19 patients show various oral manifestations that may help clinicians identify the disease promptly. Recognition of the signs and symptoms of COVID-19 is critical for an early diagnosis and better prognosis.
Evaluation of COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness in different high-risk facility types during a period of Delta variant dominance in the Republic of Korea: a cross-sectional study
Min Jei Lee, Myung-Jae Hwang, Dong Seob Kim, Seon Kyeong Park, Jihyun Choi, Ji Joo Lee, Jong Mu Kim, Young-Man Kim, Young-Joon Park, Jin Gwack, Sang-Eun Lee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2023;14(5):418-426.   Published online October 19, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2023.0188
  • 1,225 View
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
We evaluated the effectiveness of coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination in high-risk facilities in the Republic of Korea during the period when the highly transmissible Delta variant was prevalent. Additionally, we aimed to explore any disparities in vaccine effectiveness (VE) across various types of institutions, specifically distinguishing between non-medical and medical establishments. Methods: We examined 8 outbreak clusters covering 243 cases and 895 contacts from 8 high-risk facilities divided into 2 groups: group A (4 non-medical institutions) and group B (4 medical institutions). These clusters were observed from July 27, 2021 to October 16, 2021 for the attack rate (AR) and VE with respect to disease severity. A generalized linear model with a binomial distribution was used to determine the odds ratio (OR) for disease severity and death. Results: AR was notably lower in group B (medical institutions). Furthermore, VE analysis revealed that group A exhibited higher effectivity for disease severity and death than group B. The OR for disease severity was 0.24 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.03–2.16) for group A and 0.27 (95% CI, 0.12–0.64) for group B, with the OR for death at 0.12 (95% CI, 0.01–1.32) in group A and 0.34 (95% CI, 0.14–0.87) in group B. Conclusion: Although VE may vary across institutions, our findings underscore the importance of implementing vaccinations in high-risk facilities. Customized vaccination programs, tailored response plans, and competent management personnel are essential for effectively addressing and mitigating public health challenges.
Short Communication
Perceptions of older adults and generativity among older citizens in Japan: a descriptive cross-sectional study
Yuho Shimizu, Tomoya Takahashi, Kenichiro Sato, Susumu Ogawa, Daisuke Cho, Yoshifumi Takahashi, Daichi Yamashiro, Yan Li, Keigo Hinakura, Ai Iizuka, Tomoki Furuya, Hiroyuki Suzuki
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2023;14(5):427-432.   Published online October 10, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2023.0063
  • 1,142 View
  • 54 Download
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
As the population ages worldwide, including in Japan, there is a growing expectation for older adults to remain active participants in society. The act of sharing one’s experiences and knowledge with younger generations through social engagement not only enriches the lives of older individuals, but also holds significant value for our society. In this study, we examined both positive and negative perceptions of older adults and investigated the correlation between these perceptions and generativity among older citizens. Additionally, we evaluated the impact of life satisfaction on these factors. Methods: We conducted a survey of 100 older adults in Japan (mean age, 71.68 years) and utilized multiple regression analyses, using positive and negative perceptions of older adults, life satisfaction, and demographic factors as independent variables. The sub-categories of generativity—namely, generative action, concern, and accomplishment—were used as dependent variables. Results: Participants who held a more positive perception of older adults demonstrated a higher level of generative actions and concerns. Additionally, participants who reported higher levels of life satisfaction also exhibited more generative actions, concerns, and accomplishments. Conversely, those who held a more negative perception of older adults were found to have higher levels of generative actions. Conclusion: Enhancing positive perceptions of older adults among them can boost the sub-categories of generativity. This study, which was conducted from an exploratory perspective, has several limitations, including a potential sampling bias. A more comprehensive examination of the relationship between perceptions of older adults and generativity is anticipated in future research.
Brief Report
JYNNEOS vaccine safety monitoring in the Republic of Korea, 2022: a cross-sectional study
Jaeeun Lee, Seunghyun Lewis Kwon, Jinhee Park, Hyuna Bae, Hyerim Lee, Geun-Yong Kwon
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2023;14(5):433-438.   Published online October 18, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2023.0182
  • 842 View
  • 36 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
With the recent global mpox outbreak, the JYNNEOS vaccine (Modified Vaccinia Ankara-Bavarian Nordic) was developed as a third-generation smallpox vaccine and initially favored for mpox immunization. Vaccine-associated side effects contribute to vaccine hesitancy. Consequently, tracking adverse events post-immunization is crucial for safety management. This study used data from the national active vaccine safety surveillance conducted in Korea from August 25 to November 24, 2022 to detect potential safety signals and adverse events. Methods: Data on health conditions following vaccination were gathered from web-based surveys and reported via active surveillance through the Immunization Registry Information System. This follow-up system functioned via a text message link, surveying adverse events and health conditions beginning on the second day post-vaccination. Information about specific adverse events, including both local and systemic reactions, was collected. Results: The study included 86 healthcare workers who had received at least 1 dose of the JYNNEOS vaccine. Among the respondents, 79.1% reported experiencing at least 1 adverse event, with the majority being local reactions at the injection site. The incidence of adverse events was higher following the first dose (67.9%) than after the second dose (34.4%). The most frequently reported adverse event for both doses was mild pain at the injection site. Conclusion: The study provides crucial information on the safety of the JYNNEOS vaccine, demonstrating that most adverse events were manageable and predominantly localized to the injection site. Nonetheless, additional research is needed on the safety of various vaccine administration techniques and the vaccine’s effects on broader demographics.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Adverse Reactions After Intradermal Vaccination With JYNNEOS for Mpox in Korea
    So Yun Lim, Yu Mi Jung, Yeonjae Kim, Gayeon Kim, Jaehyun Jeon, BumSik Chin, Min-Kyung Kim
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef

PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives