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Volume 13(3); June 2022
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Editorial
The neglected issues of global health security that we should prepare for in our society
Jong-Koo Lee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2022;13(3):171-173.   Published online June 30, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2022.0185
  • 952 View
  • 45 Download
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Review Article
Effect of clofibrate on reducing neonatal jaundice: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Fatemeh Eghbalian, Lotfollah Karimi, Roya Raeisi, Ayda Hasanpour Dehkordi, Hamid Bouraghi
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2022;13(3):174-183.   Published online June 30, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2021.0336
  • 933 View
  • 68 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
In neonates, bilirubin tends to be deposited in body tissues, especially the skin and mucous membranes. Jaundice is an early symptom of bilirubin excretion disorders. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of clofibrate on reducing neonatal jaundice. In this systematic review, international databases, including PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane, and Google Scholar, were searched without time and language restrictions. The reference lists of all studies ultimately included were manually searched. In the 17 articles reviewed, with a sample size of 665 people published between 2005 and 2019, the average weight of the neonates varied from 2,186 g to 4,000 g. Furthermore, the average age of neonates varied from 2 days to 9 days. Four doses of clofibrate (25, 30, 50, 100 mg/kg of neonatal body weight) were used. The bilirubin level of neonates significantly decreased in the intervention group 24, 36, 48, and 72 hours after the start of treatment. Clofibrate administration decreased total serum bilirubin, especially from the second day onwards, and also reduced hospitalization time, hospital costs, and side effects from hospitalization.
Original Articles
Seroprevalence of immunoglobulin G antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in children and adolescents in Delhi, India, from January to October 2021: a repeated cross-sectional analysis
Pragya Sharma, Saurav Basu, Suruchi Mishra, Mongjam Meghachandra Singh
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2022;13(3):184-190.   Published online June 10, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2022.0014
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  • 1 Citations
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The aim of this study was to assess changes in the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) immunoglobulin G (IgG) seroprevalence among children and adolescents in Delhi, India from January 2021 to October 2021. Methods: This was a repeated cross-sectional analysis of participants aged 5 to 17 years from 2 SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence surveys conducted in Delhi, India during January 2021 and September to October 2021. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies were detected by using the VITROS assay (90% sensitivity, 100% specificity). Results: The seroprevalence among 5- to 17-year-old school-age children and adolescents increased from 52.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 51.3%−54.3%) in January 2021 to 81.8% (95% CI, 80.9%−82.6%) in September to October 2021. The assay-adjusted seroprevalence was 90.8% (95% CI, 89.8%−91.7%). Seropositivity positively correlated with participants’ age (p<0.001), but not sex (p=0.388). A signal to cut-off ratio ≥4.00, correlating with the presence of neutralization antibodies, was observed in 4,814 (57.9%) participants. Conclusion: The high percentage of seroconversion among children and adolescents indicates the presence of natural infection-induced immunity from past exposure to the SARS-CoV-2 virus. However, the lack of hybrid immunity and the concomitant likelihood of lower levels of neutralization antibodies than in adults due to the absence of vaccination warrants careful monitoring and surveillance of infection risk and disease severity from newer and emergent variants.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Seroprevalence of SARS CoV-2 among children after the second surge (June 2021) in a rural district of South India: Findings and lessons from a population-based survey
    Carolin Elizabeth George, Leeberk Raja Inbaraj, Shon Rajukutty, Roshni Florina Joan, Sangeetha Muthuraj, Sindhulina Chandrasingh
    Frontiers in Pediatrics.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Transmission parameters of coronavirus disease 2019 in South Asian countries
Mridul Sannyal, Abul Mukid Mohammad Mukaddes
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2022;13(3):191-202.   Published online June 23, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2021.0234
  • 1,386 View
  • 37 Download
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study aimed to estimate the transmission parameters, effective reproduction number, epidemic peak, and future exposure of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in South Asian countries. Methods: A susceptible-exposed-infected-recovered-death (SEIRD) model programmed with MATLAB was developed for this purpose. Data were collected (till June 28, 2021) from the official webpage of World Health Organization, along with the Center for Systems Science and Engineering at Johns Hopkins University. The model was simulated to measure the primary transmission parameters. The reproduction number was measured using the next-generating matrix method. Results: The primary transmission rate followed an exponential Gaussian process regression. India showed the highest transmission rate (0.037) and Bhutan the lowest (0.023). The simulated epidemic peaks matched the reported peaks, thereby validating the SEIRD model. The simulation was carried out up to December 31, 2020 using the reported data till June 9, 2020. Conclusion: The information gathered in this research will be helpful for authorities to prevent the transmission of COVID-19 in the subsequent wave or in the future.
Changes in the pattern and disease burden of acute respiratory viral infections before and during the COVID-19 pandemic
Chungmin Park, Donghan Lee, Bryan Inho Kim, Sujin Park, Gyehee Lee, Sangwoo Tak
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2022;13(3):203-211.   Published online June 30, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2022.0144
  • 2,118 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
We conducted a comparative analysis of the differences in the incidence of 8 acute respiratory viruses and the changes in their patterns before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Methods: Three sentinel surveillance systems of the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency and data from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service were analyzed. The average numbers of reported cases and the related hospital admissions and outpatient data were compared between April 2018–2019 and 2020–2021. Changes in the disease burden and medical expenditures between these 2 time periods were evaluated. Results: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of reported cases of all acute respiratory viral infections, except for human bocavirus, decreased significantly. Data from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service also showed decreases in the actual amount of medical service usage and a marked reduction in medical expenditures. Conclusion: Non-pharmacological interventions in response to COVID-19 showed preventive effects on the transmission of other respiratory viruses, as well as COVID-19. Although COVID-19 had a tremendous impact on society as a whole, with high social costs, there were also positive effects, such as a reduction in the incidence of acute respiratory viral infections.
Voluntary testing for COVID-19: perceptions and utilization among the inhabitants of Saudi Arabia
Ehab A. Abo-Ali, Ahmed Mousa, Rania Hussien, Shahad Mousa, Shayma Al-Rubaki, Mennatulla Omar, Badr Al-Haffashi, Abdullah Almilaibary
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2022;13(3):212-220.   Published online June 10, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2022.0062
  • 1,167 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Voluntary testing (VT) plays a crucial role in the prevention and control of infectious diseases. The present study investigated the perceptions and utilization of VT services for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among the inhabitants of Saudi Arabia. Methods: In total, 3,510 adult participants from all provinces of Saudi Arabia were recruited via a national online survey. Results: Of the 3,510 participants, 88.9% were aware of the testing services available to them and of those, more than half (59.5%) had used the VT services and 96.1% were satisfied with the services. Contact with a positive COVID-19 case was the top reason for accessing VT, while a lack of awareness about the availability of VT services was the top perceived limiting factor. A history of chronic health conditions, anxiety and/or depression, and previous symptoms suggestive of COVID-19 were found to be predictors of the utilization of VT services (odds ratio [OR] 1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22−1.96; OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.16−1.88; and OR 3.31, 95% CI 2.77−3.95), respectively. Conclusion: The awareness of voluntary COVID-19 testing services was satisfactory among the Saudi Arabian population, but can be improved. Sociodemographic and health history predictors of the utilization of VT services were identified.
Epidemiological characteristics of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in a tertiary referral hospital in Korea
Sollan Kang, Ihn Sook Jeong
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2022;13(3):221-229.   Published online June 30, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2022.0097
  • 798 View
  • 28 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study aimed to identify the epidemiological characteristics of patients with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter baumannii (CRE/ CRAB) isolates in a tertiary referral hospital in Korea. Methods: We collected and analyzed data from 528 adults admitted to a tertiary referral hospital from August 1, 2018 to February 29, 2020. The CRE/CRAB isolates were confirmed as being present at the time of patients’ admission or acquired during hospitalization based on their medical records. The t-test, chi-square test, or Fisher exact test and stepwise multiple logistic regression were performed. Results: While the proportion of community-acquired CRE/CRAB was low (6%), 20% of CRE/ CRAB isolates were identified in patients at the time of hospitalization. The risk of CRAB isolation was positively associated with mechanical ventilator use (odds ratio [OR], 3.52; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.96−6.33) and total parenteral nutrition use (OR, 3.64; 95% CI, 1.87−7.08). Conclusion: Over 20% of CRE/CRAB isolates in a tertiary referral hospital in Korea were found at the time of patients’ admission. Furthermore, patients with mechanical ventilation and/or total parenteral nutrition tended to acquire CRAB more frequently. Thus, active surveillance for CRE/CRAB at the time of hospitalization is strongly required, particularly for patients who are expected to require mechanical ventilation or total parenteral nutrition.
Brief Report
Safety monitoring of COVID-19 vaccination among adolescents aged 12 to 17 years old in the Republic of Korea
Seontae Kim, Insob Hwang, Mijeong Ko, Yunhyung Kwon, Yeon-Kyeng Lee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2022;13(3):230-237.   Published online June 10, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2022.0122
  • 1,561 View
  • 91 Download
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study aimed to disseminate information on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine safety among adolescents aged 12 to 17 years in the Republic of Korea. Methods: Two databases were used to assess COVID-19 vaccine safety in adolescents aged 12 to 17 years who completed the primary Pfizer-BioNTech vaccination series. Adverse events reported to the web-based COVID-19 vaccination management system (CVMS) and collected in the text message-based system were analyzed. Results: From March 5, 2021 to February 13, 2022, 12,216 adverse events among 12- to 17-yearolds were reported to the CVMS, of which 97.1% were non-serious adverse events and 2.9% were serious adverse events, including 85 suspected cases of anaphylaxis, 74 suspected cases of myocarditis and/or pericarditis, and 2 deaths. From December 13, 2021 to January 26, 2022, 10,389 adolescents responded to a text message survey, and local/systemic adverse events were more common after dose 2 than after dose 1. The most commonly reported events following either vaccine dose were pain at the injection site, headache, fatigue/tiredness, and myalgia. Conclusion: The overall results are consistent with previous findings; the great majority of adverse events were non-serious, and serious adverse events were rare among adolescents aged 12 to 17 years following Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccination.

PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives