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Volume 12(2); April 2021
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Editorial
Can we reach a 70% level of herd immunity to return to normality?
Jong-Koo Lee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2021;12(2):51-53.   Published online April 29, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2021.12.2.01
  • 3,405 View
  • 194 Download
  • 1 Citations
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  • What is more dangerous – the disease, the vaccine or the government? Using governmentality theory to understand vaccine hesitancy among Israeli citizens in times of corona
    Yael Keshet, Ariela Popper-Giveon
    Health, Risk & Society.2022; 24(5-6): 208.     CrossRef
Original Articles
COVID-19 transmission: a rapid systematic review of current knowledge
Panagiotis Mourmouris, Lazaros Tzelves, Christiana Roidi, Anastasia Fotsali
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2021;12(2):54-63.   Published online April 29, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2021.12.2.02
  • 4,938 View
  • 229 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
The objective of this study was to identify the potential and definite sources of transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
Methods
Due to time constraints and the acute nature of the pandemic, we searched only PubMed/Medline from inception until January 28, 2021. We analyzed the level of evidence and risk of bias in each category and made suggestions accordingly.
Results
The virus was traced from its potential origin via possible ways of transmission to the last host. Symptomatic human-to-human transmission remains the driver of the epidemic, but asymptomatic transmission can potentially contribute in a substantial manner. Feces and fomites have both been found to contain viable virus; even though transmission through these routes has not been documented, their contribution cannot be ruled out. Finally, transmission from pregnant women to their children has been found to be low (up to 3%).
Conclusion
Even though robust outcomes cannot be easily assessed, medical personnel must maintain awareness of the main routes of transmission (via droplets and aerosols from even asymptomatic patients). This is the first attempt to systematically review the existing knowledge to produce a paper with a potentially significant clinical impact.

Citations

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  • Bayesian network-based spatial predictive modelling reveals COVID-19 transmission dynamics in Eswatini
    Wisdom M. D. Dlamini, Sabelo P. Simelane, Nhlanhla M. Nhlabatsi
    Spatial Information Research.2022; 30(1): 183.     CrossRef
  • Fetal inflammatory response syndrome and postnatal multi-system inflammatory syndrome in COVID-19-positive neonates
    Meenakshi S. KUSHWAH, Arunkrishnan BALARAVI, Lakshmi VENUGOPALAN, Sreekanth RAMASHENOY, Anita CHRISBINA, Monisha PRABHAKARN, Sumaiya ALAUDDIN, Munmun SAHNEY, Manoj K. DEENADAYALAN, Prakash PETCHIMUTHU
    Minerva Respiratory Medicine.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Global variation of COVID-19 mortality rates in the initial phase
Saman Hasan Siddiqui, Azza Sarfraz, Arjumand Rizvi, Fariha Shaheen, Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Syed Asad Ali
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2021;12(2):64-72.   Published online April 29, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2021.12.2.03
  • 3,821 View
  • 141 Download
  • 6 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused devastation in over 200 countries. Italy, Spain, and the United States (US) were most severely affected by the first wave of the pandemic. The reasons why some countries were more strongly affected than others remain unknown. We identified the most-affected and less-affected countries and states and explored environmental, host, and infrastructure risk factors that may explain differences in the SARS-CoV-2 mortality burden.
Methods
We identified the top 10 countries/US states with the highest deaths per population until May 2020. For each of these 10 case countries/states, we identified 6 control countries/states with a similar population size and at least 3 times fewer deaths per population. We extracted data for 30 risk factors from publicly available, trusted sources. We compared case and control countries/states using the non-parametric Wilcoxon rank-sum test, and conducted a secondary cluster analysis to explore the relationship between the number of cases per population and the number of deaths per population using a scalable EM (expectation–maximization) clustering algorithm.
Results
Statistically significant differences were found in 16 of 30 investigated risk factors, the most important of which were temperature, neonatal and under-5 mortality rates, the percentage of under-5 deaths due to acute respiratory infections (ARIs) and diarrhea, and tuberculosis incidence (p<0.05)
Conclusion
Countries with a higher burden of baseline pediatric mortality rates, higher pediatric mortality from preventable diseases like diarrhea and ARI, and higher tuberculosis incidence had lower rates of coronavirus disease 2019-associated mortality, supporting the hygiene hypothesis.

Citations

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  • Demographic Characteristics and Status of Vaccinated Individuals with a History of COVID-19 Infection Pre- or Post-Vaccination: A Descriptive Study of a Nationally Representative Sample in Saudi Arabia
    Yazed AlRuthia, Haya F. Al-Salloum, Omar A. Almohammed, Amani S. Alqahtani, Hana A. Al-Abdulkarim, Yousef M. Alsofayan, Sami S. Almudarra, Sara H. AlQahtani, Abdullah Almutlaq, Khaled Alabdulkareem, Bander Balkhi, Hamoud T. Almutairi, Abdullah S. Alanazi,
    Vaccines.2022; 10(2): 323.     CrossRef
  • Temporal variation, socioeconomic status, and out‐of‐hospital deaths as factors that influence mortality rates among hospitalized COVID‐19 patients receiving ACEIs/ARBs
    Owais M. Aftab, Anurag Modak, Jai C. Patel
    The Journal of Clinical Hypertension.2022; 24(4): 519.     CrossRef
  • Coinfection of leptospirosis and coronavirus disease 2019: A retrospective case series from a coastal region in South India
    Nitin Gupta, William Wilson, Prithvishree Ravindra, Roshini Raghu, Kavitha Saravu
    Journal of Medical Virology.2022; 94(9): 4508.     CrossRef
  • Dietary, comorbidity, and geo-economic data fusion for explainable COVID-19 mortality prediction
    Milena Trajanoska, Risto Trajanov, Tome Eftimov
    Expert Systems with Applications.2022; 209: 118377.     CrossRef
  • Paraoxonase 1 rs662 polymorphism, its related variables, and COVID-19 intensity: Considering gender and post-COVID complications
    Zohreh-Al-Sadat Ghoreshi, Mojtaba Abbasi-jorjandi, Gholamreza Asadikaram, Mohsen Sharif-zak, Fatemeh Seyedi, Mohammad Khaksari Haddad, Mohammadreza Zangouey
    Experimental Biology and Medicine.2022; : 153537022211285.     CrossRef
  • Variances in BCG protection against COVID-19 mortality: A global assessment
    Zouina Sarfraz, Azza Sarfraz, Krunal Pandav, Sarabjot Singh Makkar, Saman Hasan Siddiqui, Gaurav Patel, Tania Platero-Portillo, Bishnu Mohan Singh, Mohamed Iburahim Haja Maideen, Deepika Sarvepalli, Muzna Sarfraz, Jose Cardona-Guzman, Marcos A. Sanchez-Go
    Journal of Clinical Tuberculosis and Other Mycobac.2021; 24: 100249.     CrossRef
Trends in recent waterborne and foodborne disease outbreaks in South Korea, 2015–2019
Sang Hyuk Lee, Jae-Won Yun, Ji Hee Lee, Yeon Haw Jung, Dong Han Lee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2021;12(2):73-79.   Published online April 29, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2021.12.2.04
  • 3,918 View
  • 129 Download
  • 4 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study analyzed trends in foodborne and waterborne diseases in South Korea between 2015 and 2019.
Methods
The data consisted of information on outbreaks of waterborne and foodborne infectious diseases reported through the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) system. We analyzed the trends and epidemiological aspects of outbreaks by month, place of occurrence, and causative pathogens in this observational study.
Results
The number of outbreaks has steadily increased over the last 5 years, but the number of cases per outbreak has followed a decreasing trend. Incidence at daycare centers and preschools has been steadily increasing over consecutive years.
Conclusion
The steady number of patients and decreasing number of cases per outbreak, even as the number of outbreaks has been increasing, suggest that the KCDC’s professional management system is operating effectively. It is necessary to continue improving the objectivity and efficiency of the management system and to carefully examine the increasing number of outbreaks in smaller-scale group catering facilities, such as daycare centers and preschools. Outbreaks can be prevented by closely examining those caused by unidentified pathogens and group outbreaks caused by other diseases, identifying problems, and supplementing the management system.

Citations

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  • Survival of murine norovirus and hepatitis A virus in bottled drinking water, strawberries, and oysters
    Ziwei Zhao, Md Iqbal Hossain, Soontag Jung, Zhaoqi Wang, Daseul Yeo, Mengxiao Song, Ae Min, Sunho Park, Changsun Choi
    Food Control.2022; 133: 108623.     CrossRef
  • Trends in gastrointestinal infections before and during non-pharmaceutical interventions in Korea in comparison with the United States
    Soyeoun Kim, Jinhyun Kim, Bo Youl Choi, Boyoung Park
    Epidemiology and Health.2022; 44: e2022011.     CrossRef
  • Molecular Identification of Bacillus Isolated from Korean Water Deer (Hydropotes inermis argyropus) and Striped Field Mouse (Apodemus agrarius) Feces by Using an SNP-Based 16S Ribosomal Marker
    Md-Mafizur Rahman, Sang-Jin Lim, Yung-Chul Park
    Animals.2022; 12(8): 979.     CrossRef
  • Trends in Acute Gastroenteritis through the Pathogen Surveillance System in Incheon Metropolitan City, 2018-2021
    Jung Hee Kim, Sung Min Song, Ju Hee Kim, Soo Min Lim, Su Jin Park, Hwa Jung Nam, Young Woo Gong, Mun Ju Kwon
    Journal of Bacteriology and Virology.2022; 52(2): 54.     CrossRef
Psychological outcomes of the COVID-19 pandemic among pregnant women in Indonesia: a cross-sectional study
Rahmah Hida Nurrizka, Yuri Nurdiantami, Feda Anisah Makkiyah
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2021;12(2):80-87.   Published online April 29, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2021.12.2.05
  • 4,128 View
  • 208 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The objective of this study was to analyze the psychological outcomes of pregnant women during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in several areas that are epicenters for the spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Indonesia.
Methods
This cross-sectional study used data obtained from an online survey administered to 120 women who were pregnant and gave birth during the COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia. The psychological condition of pregnant women was measured using the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-21 questionnaire which was modified for conditions experienced during the COVID-19 pandemic. We classified pregnant women into 2 groups according to their psychological condition: pregnant women who experienced anxiety and pregnant women who did not experience anxiety or felt normal. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was undertaken for the 2 groups. This study also used univariate analysis and bivariate analysis.
Results
The results of the ROC analysis resulted in a cutoff score of 3.56. The proportion of respondents who felt anxious was 53.3% and the proportion of respondents who did not feel anxious or felt normal was 46.7%. Anxiety was most common among pregnant women with high education levels, gestational age <19 weeks, and working pregnant women.
Conclusion
Maternal health services need to be performed with strict health protocols, complemented by pregnancy counseling services. This will provide a feeling of comfort and safety as pregnant women receive health services and give birth.

Citations

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  • Risk factors for depression and anxiety in pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic: Evidence from meta-analysis
    Yupeng Luo, Kui Zhang, Mengxue Huang, Changjian Qiu, Ali Rostami
    PLOS ONE.2022; 17(3): e0265021.     CrossRef
Seroprevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 and predictors of seropositivity among employees of a teaching hospital in New Delhi, India
Pragya Sharma, Rohit Chawla, Ritika Bakshi, Sonal Saxena, Saurav Basu, Pradeep Kumar Bharti, Meera Dhuria, S. K. Singh, Panna Lal
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2021;12(2):88-95.   Published online April 29, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2021.12.2.06
  • 3,710 View
  • 86 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at a high risk of contracting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) due to the increased likelihood of clinical exposure during patient management. The study objective was to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 and its predictors among hospital employees.
Methods
The cross-sectional study was conducted at a teaching hospital from August 2020 to September 2020 among 1,401 employees, including 1,217 HCWs, in New Delhi, India. The serum samples were examined for immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 using the COVID Kavach-Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG Antibody Detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Data were collected electronically using the EpiCollect mobile platform. A p<0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance.
Results
A total of 169 participants (12.1%) had detectable IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. The highest seropositivity rate was observed in the administrative staff (20.1%), while it was lowest among medical doctors (5.5%, p<0.001). Male sex and ever having lived in a containment zone were independently associated with past infection with SARS-CoV-2.
Conclusion
The seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in health workers may be lower than in the general population in New Delhi. However, non-pharmaceutical interventions were not associated with a reduction in the risk of acquisition of SARS-CoV-2.

Citations

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  • Seroprevalence of IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in India, March 2020 to August 2021: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Nuzrath Jahan, Adarsha Brahma, Muthusamy Santhosh Kumar, Bhavani Shankara Bagepally, Manickam Ponnaiah, Tarun Bhatnagar, Manoj V Murhekar
    International Journal of Infectious Diseases.2022; 116: 59.     CrossRef
  • Risk Factors for COVID-19 Infection Among Healthcare Workers. A First Report From a Living Systematic Review and meta-Analysis
    Tafadzwa Dzinamarira, Sphamandla Josias Nkambule, Mbuzeleni Hlongwa, Malizgani Mhango, Patrick Gad Iradukunda, Itai Chitungo, Mathias Dzobo, Munyaradzi Paul Mapingure, Innocent Chingombe, Moreblessing Mashora, Roda Madziva, Helena Herrera, Pelagia Makanda
    Safety and Health at Work.2022; 13(3): 263.     CrossRef
  • Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 and Risk Assessment Among Healthcare Workers at a Dedicated Tertiary Care COVID-19 Hospital in Delhi, India: A Cohort Study
    Pragya Sharma, Rohit Chawla, Saurav Basu, Sonal Saxena, Warisha Mariam, Pradeep Kumar Bharti, Shivani Rao, Neha Tanwar, Anisur Rahman, Mohammad Ahmad
    Cureus.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
Sex differences in weight perception and weight gain among Black college students in the USA
Jounghee Lee, Jaesin Sa, Jean-Philippe Chaput, James Heimdal, Beatrice Nelson, Beom-Young Cho, Elizabeth Kwon
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2021;12(2):96-104.   Published online April 29, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2021.12.2.07
  • 3,331 View
  • 106 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence of overweight/obesity and to explore sex differences in body weight perceptions and correlates of weight gain among Black students at 2 historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) in the USA.
Methods
Participants completed a paper-based survey, and their height and weight were measured (67% completion rate).
Results
The overweight and obesity rates were 33.8% and 26.9%, respectively. More females than males accurately assessed their weight (p<0.05). Body weight underestimation was associated with male sex, excellent/very good perceived overall health, and not being informed by a doctor of having overweight or obesity (p<0.01). Higher odds of ≥5% weight gain were related to female sex, living on campus, and not being informed by a doctor of having overweight or obesity (p<0.05).
Conclusion
Given the high overweight and obesity rates among Black students, HBCUs in the USA should develop intervention strategies for the prevention and management of overweight and obesity. College health educators at HBCUs need to provide regular check-ups or health screenings that help male students perceive their weight accurately and prevent weight underestimation. It is important for HBCUs to monitor and address weight gain among Black students as early as possible.
Sex differences in the relationship between depression and cardiovascular disease risk: a nationwide study in Korea
Seol-bin Kim, Ihn Sook Jeong
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2021;12(2):105-114.   Published online April 29, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2021.12.2.08
  • 4,155 View
  • 74 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
This study aimed to identify sex differences in the association between depression and the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD).
Methods
A secondary analysis was conducted of data from the fifth to seventh waves (2010−2018) of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The participants were adults aged 30−74 years who had no diagnosis of CVD. The CVD risk was calculated using the Framingham Risk Score algorithm. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to identify the association between depression and CVD risk using a complex sample design.
Results
The mean CVD risk was higher in males and females with current depression (14.72% vs. 6.35%, respectively) than in males without current depression (11.67% and 4.42%, respectively). Current depression showed a significant association with CVD risk after controlling for only health-related characteristics, but the significance disappeared in both males and females when demographic characteristics were additionally controlled.
Conclusion
The presence of depression was not associated with CVD risk regardless of sex after controlling for confounding factors. Further studies are recommended to investigate the relationship between depression and CVD risk in a larger sample of both males and females with depression.
Impact of fatigue on quality of life among breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy
Fares Mohammed Saeed Muthanna, Mahmathi Karuppannan, Bassam Abdul Rasool Hassan, Ali Haider Mohammed
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2021;12(2):115-125.   Published online April 29, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2021.12.2.09
  • 4,917 View
  • 226 Download
  • 5 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Fatigue is the most frequently reported symptom experienced by cancer patients and has a profound effect on their quality of life (QOL). The study aimed to determine the impact of fatigue on QOL among breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and to identify the risk factors associated with severe fatigue incidence.
Methods
This was an observational prospective study carried out at multiple centers. In total, 172 breast cancer patients were included. The Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue Questionnaire was used to measure QOL, while the Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI) was used to assess the severity of fatigue.
Results
The total average mean and standard deviation of QOL were 84.58±18.07 and 4.65±1.14 for BFI scores, respectively. A significant association between fatigue and QOL was found in linear and multiple regression analyses. The relationships between fatigue severity and cancer stage, chemotherapy dose delay, dose reduction, chemotherapy regimen, and ethnicity were determined using binary logistic regression analysis.
Conclusion
The findings of this study are believed to be useful for helping oncologists effectively evaluate, monitor, and treat fatigue related to QOL changes.

Citations

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  • Anatomical Sites OF Superficial Basal Cell Cancers Demonstrate Higher Rates of Mixed Histology
    Zahid Sarfaraz Khan, Asim Muhammad, Muhammad Ataullah, Syeda Gulrukh Saba Shah, Tehmina Naushin, Hina Mir, Nabiha Naeem, Ziyad Ahmad, Sudhair Abbas Bangash, Irfan Ullah
    Pakistan BioMedical Journal.2022; : 44.     CrossRef
  • Glycated Albumin's Clinical Effectiveness in The Diabetes Diagnosis
    Summeira Jabeen Shah, Hajira Ishaq, Hina Hakeem, Saima Shaheen, Sikandar Ali Khan, Sosan Rauf, Hina Mir, Sudhair Abbas Bangash, Muhammad Ali, Irfan Ullah
    Pakistan BioMedical Journal.2022; : 176.     CrossRef
  • Post stroke intervention trial in fatigue (POSITIF): Randomised multicentre feasibility trial
    Gillian Mead, David Gillespie, Mark Barber, Allan House, Steff Lewis, Hannah Ensor, Simiao Wu, Trudie Chalder
    Clinical Rehabilitation.2022; 36(12): 1578.     CrossRef
  • Quality of Life and Its Associated Factors Among Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy at Oncology Hospitals in Vietnam After the Third Wave of the COVID-19 Pandemic
    Hanh TH Nguyen, Khanh Linh Duong, Son T Nguyen, Quy Trinh, Hao TL Hoang, Toan Q Phung, Hsiang-Wen Lin, Huong TL Nguyen
    Cancer Management and Research.2022; Volume 14: 2429.     CrossRef
  • Effects of traditional Chinese medicine exercise therapy on cancer-related fatigue, anxiety and sleep quality in cancer patients
    Lihao Jiang, Ju Ouyang, Xianfeng Du
    Medicine.2021; 100(44): e27681.     CrossRef
The 100 top-cited articles on scrub typhus: a bibliometric analysis
Taha Hussein Musa, Wei Li, Joseph Kawuki, Pingmin Wei
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2021;12(2):126-135.   Published online April 29, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2021.12.2.10
  • 3,198 View
  • 93 Download
  • 4 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
The aims of this study were to analyze the characteristics of the 100 top-cited articles on scrub typhus (ST), and to assess the present research landscape and future research directions using bibliometric analysis.
Methods
Web of Science was used to conduct a bibliometric analysis of the 100 top-cited articles on ST. The articles were analyzed by publication year, number of citations, document type, journals, keywords, institutions, country of origin, and authorship.
Results
The top 100 articles on ST were published between 1945 to 2017. The number of citations ranges from 39 to 227 and the interquartile range was 35.5. The United States published the highest number (n=21) of articles. Mahidol University was the most prolific institution in terms of articles (n=14). The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene was the journal with the most articles (n=14), and Paris DH was the most productive author in terms of the Hirsh-index, which was 10 for that author. The study revealed a significant correlation between the total number of citations and the number of authors (r=0.668, p<0.001), number of institutions (r=0.692, p<0.001), number of years since publication (r=0.869, p<0.001), and number of countries involved (r=0.963, p<0.001).
Conclusion
The findings of this study provide landmarks in the publication and citation frequency of the most influential articles on ST. In addition, this study provides useful information for readers and health policy-makers in evaluating the literature on ST.

Citations

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  • The 100 top-cited articles on childhood obesity: a bibliometric analysis
    Joseph Kawuki, Taha Hussein Musa, Upama Ghimire, Nathan Obore, Shireen Salome Papabathini
    Global Health Journal.2022; 6(3): 136.     CrossRef
  • Cancer and COVID-19 research studies with team science: a bibliometric study
    Arezoo Ghamgosar, Sirous Panahi, Leila Nemati-Anaraki
    Journal of Interprofessional Care.2022; : 1.     CrossRef
  • The associations between scientific collaborations of LIS research and its policy impact
    Zhihong Huang, Qianjin Zong, Xuerui Ji
    Scientometrics.2022; 127(11): 6453.     CrossRef
  • A systematic and thematic analysis of the top 100 cited articles on mRNA vaccine indexed in Scopus database
    Hassan H. Musa, Taha H. Musa
    Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef

PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives