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Kourosh Holakouie-Naieni 2 Articles
Alarm Thresholds for Pertussis Outbreaks in Iran: National Data Analysis
Yousef Alimohamadi, Seyed Mohsen Zahraei, Manoochehr Karami, Mehdi Yaseri, Mojtaba Lotfizad, Kourosh Holakouie-Naieni
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(5):309-318.   Published online October 22, 2020
  • 5,346 View
  • 63 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF

The purpose of the current study was to determine the upper threshold number of cases for which pertussis infection would reach an outbreak level nationally in Iran.


Data on suspected cases of pertussis from the 25th February 2012 to the 23rd March 2018 from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention in Iran was used. The national upper threshold level was estimated using the exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) method and the Poisson regression method.


In total, 2,577 (33.6%) and 1,714 (22.3%) cases were reported in the Spring and Summer respectively. There were 1,417 (18.5%) and 1,971 (25.6%) cases reported in the Autumn and Winter, respectively. The overall upper threshold using the EWMA and the Poisson regression methods, was estimated as a daily occurrence of 8 (7.55) and 7.50 (4.48–11.06) suspected cases per 10,000,000 people, respectively. The daily seasonal thresholds estimated by the EWMA and the Poisson regression methods were 10, 7, 6, 8 cases and 10, 7, 7, 9 cases for the Spring, Summer, Autumn, and Winter, respectively.


The overall and seasonal estimated thresholds by the 2 methods were similar. Therefore, the estimated thresholds of 6–10 cases in a day, per 10,000,000 people could be used to detect pertussis outbreaks and epidemics by health policymakers.


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  • Immunogenicity and Safety of a Newly Developed Tetanus-Diphtheria Toxoid (Td) in Healthy Korean Adolescents: a Multi-center, Randomized, Double-blind, Active-Controlled Phase 3 Trial
    Ui Yoon Choi, Ki Hwan Kim, Jin Lee, Byung Wook Eun, Hwang Min Kim, Kyung-Yil Lee, Dong Ho Kim, Sang Hyuk Ma, Jina Lee, Jong-Hyun Kim
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
Causal Effect of Self-esteem on Cigarette Smoking Stages in Adolescents: Coarsened Exact Matching in a Longitudinal Study
Ahmad Khosravi, Asghar Mohammadpoorasl, Kourosh Holakouie-Naieni, Mahmood Mahmoodi, Ali Akbar Pouyan, Mohammad Ali Mansournia
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(6):341-345.   Published online December 31, 2016
  • 3,088 View
  • 33 Download
  • 14 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Identification of the causal impact of self-esteem on smoking stages faces seemingly insurmountable problems in observational data, where self-esteem is not manipulable by the researcher and cannot be assigned randomly. The aim of this study was to find out if weaker self-esteem in adolescence is a risk factor of cigarette smoking in a longitudinal study in Iran.
In this longitudinal study, 4,853 students (14–18 years) completed a self-administered multiple-choice anonym questionnaire. The students were evaluated twice, 12 months apart. Students were matched based on coarsened exact matching on pretreatment variables, including age, gender, smoking stages at the first wave of study, socioeconomic status, general risk-taking behavior, having a smoker in the family, having a smoker friend, attitude toward smoking, and self-injury, to ensure statistically equivalent comparison groups. Self-esteem was measured using the Rosenberg 10-item questionnaire and were classified using a latent class analysis. After matching, the effect of self-esteem was evaluated using a multinomial logistic model.
In the causal fitted model, for adolescents with weaker self-esteem relative to those with stronger self-esteem, the relative risk for experimenters and regular smokers relative to nonsmokers would be expected to increase by a factor of 2.2 (1.9–2.6) and 2.0 (1.5–2.6), respectively.
Using a causal approach, our study indicates that low self-esteem is consistently associated with progression in cigarette smoking stages.


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  • Social, educational, and psychological health correlates of e-cigarette and combustible cigarette use among adolescents in the US from 2015 to 2021
    Nabeel A. Janjua, Noah T. Kreski, Katherine M. Keyes
    Addictive Behaviors.2023; 144: 107754.     CrossRef
  • Self-esteem, Self-efficacy, and Smoking Prevalence: A Cross-sectional Study Among Military and Civilian Medical Students
    Monica Licu, Claudiu G. Ionescu, Maria Suciu, Sorin Păun
    Romanian Journal of Military Medicine.2023; 126(4): 502.     CrossRef
  • The prevalence of smoking and the levels of self-esteem and self-efficacy among adolescents in Turkey: A descriptive cross-sectional study
    Alime Selçuk Tosun, Büşra Altınel, Arzu Koçak Uyaroğlu, Emine Ergin
    Journal of Pediatric Nursing.2023; 73: e563.     CrossRef
  • The effect of the educational intervention on empowerment of male high school students in prevention of smoking
    Ali Khani Jeihooni, Amirhossein Mobaraei, Amin Kiani, Pooyan Afzali Harsini, Sajjad Karami Ghazi Khani
    Journal of Substance Use.2022; 27(2): 162.     CrossRef
  • “I am a little superhero!”: a pilot play-based group to enhance self-esteem of children from low-income families in Hong Kong
    Jessie Ming Sin Wong
    Social Work with Groups.2021; 44(2): 181.     CrossRef
  • Depressive Symptoms and Cigarette Smoking in Adolescents and Young Adults: Mediating Role of Friends Smoking
    Christian W Mendo, Marine Maurel, Isabelle Doré, Jennifer O’Loughlin, Marie-Pierre Sylvestre
    Nicotine & Tobacco Research.2021; 23(10): 1771.     CrossRef
  • Explaining the determinants of hookah smoking cessation among southern Iranian women: a qualitative study
    Sakineh Dadipoor, Gerjo Kok, Ali Heyrani, Teamur Aghamolaei, Mohtasham Ghaffari, Amin Ghanbarnezhad
    Journal of Substance Use.2020; 25(5): 469.     CrossRef
  • Impact of gender, age and smoking habits on the effectiveness of health warning messages on cigarette packets: research on a highly educated Turkish sample
    Murat Aktan
    International Journal of Health Promotion and Educ.2020; 58(4): 167.     CrossRef
  • The Price of Mission Complexity: A National Study of the Impact of Community College Baccalaureate Adoption on Tuition and Fees
    Justin C. Ortagus, Xiaodan Hu
    Educational Researcher.2019; 48(8): 504.     CrossRef
  • Knowledge and Attitudes of University Students Towards Hookah Smoking in Fasa, Iran
    Ali Khani Jeihooni, Zahra Khiyali, Seyyed Mansour Kashfi, Seyyed Hannan Kashfi, Mohammad Zakeri, Mehdi Amirkhani
    Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Scien.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Evaluation of the Impact of Psychoactive Substances on Adolescents’ Self-Esteem Attending School in Kenitra, Morocco
    Ibtissam Cherkaoui El Malki, Imad Echerbaoui, Khaoula Mammad, Youssef El Madhi, Ahmed Omar Touhami Ahami
    Psychology.2018; 09(04): 705.     CrossRef
  • Cigarette and hookah smoking and their relationship with self-esteem and communication skills among high school students
    Masumeh Anbarlouei, Parvin Sarbakhsh, Hossein Dadashzadeh, Akbar Ghiasi, Maryam Ataieasl, Abbasali Dorosti, Asghar Mohammadpour Asl
    Health Promotion Perspectives.2018; 8(3): 230.     CrossRef
  • How gender- and violence-related norms affect self-esteem among adolescent refugee girls living in Ethiopia
    L. Stark, K. Asghar, I. Seff, B. Cislaghi, G. Yu, T. Tesfay Gessesse, J. Eoomkham, A. Assazenew Baysa, K. Falb
    Global Mental Health.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef

PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives