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Hachung Yoon 3 Articles
Risk Assessment Program of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza with Deep Learning Algorithm
Hachung Yoon, Ah-Reum Jang, Chungsik Jung, Hunseok Ko, Kwang-Nyeong Lee, Eunesub Lee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(4):239-244.   Published online August 31, 2020
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  • 84 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material

This study presents the development and validation of a risk assessment program of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). This program was developed by the Korean government (Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency) and a private corporation (Korea Telecom, KT), using a national database (Korean animal health integrated system, KAHIS).


Our risk assessment program was developed using the multilayer perceptron method using R Language. HPAI outbreaks on 544 poultry farms (307 with H5N6, and 237 with H5N8) that had available visit records of livestock-related vehicles amongst the 812 HPAI outbreaks that were confirmed between January 2014 and June 2017 were involved in this study.


After 140,000 iterations without drop-out, a model with 3 hidden layers and 10 nodes per layer, were selected. The activation function of the model was hyperbolic tangent. Precision and recall of the test gave F1 measures of 0.41, 0.68 and 0.51, respectively, at validation. The predicted risk values were higher for the “outbreak” (average ± SD, 0.20 ± 0.31) than “non-outbreak” (0.18 ± 0.30) farms (p < 0.001).


The risk assessment model developed was employed during the epidemics of 2016/2017 (pilot version) and 2017/2018 (complementary version). This risk assessment model enhanced risk management activities by enabling preemptive control measures to prevent the spread of diseases.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Big data-based risk assessment of poultry farms during the 2020/2021 highly pathogenic avian influenza epidemic in Korea
    Hachung Yoon, Ilseob Lee, Hyeonjeong Kang, Kyung-Sook Kim, Eunesub Lee, Mathilde Richard
    PLOS ONE.2022; 17(6): e0269311.     CrossRef
  • Artificial Intelligence Models for Zoonotic Pathogens: A Survey
    Nisha Pillai, Mahalingam Ramkumar, Bindu Nanduri
    Microorganisms.2022; 10(10): 1911.     CrossRef
H5N8 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in the Republic of Korea: Epidemiology During the First Wave, from January Through July 2014
Hachung Yoon, Oun-Kyong Moon, Wooseog Jeong, Jida Choi, Young-Myong Kang, Hyo-Young Ahn, Jee-Hye Kim, Dae-Sung Yoo, Young-Jin Kwon, Woo-Seok Chang, Myeong-Soo Kim, Do-Soon Kim, Yong-Sang Kim, Yi-Seok Joo
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2015;6(2):106-111.   Published online April 30, 2015
  • 3,239 View
  • 27 Download
  • 15 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
This study describes the outbreaks of H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in Korea during the first wave, from January 16, 2014 through July 25, 2014. Its purpose is to provide a better understanding of the epidemiology of H5N8 HPAI.
Information on the outbreak farms and HPAI positive wild birds was provided by the Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency. The epidemiological investigation sheets for the outbreak farms were examined.
During the 7-month outbreak period (January–July 2014), H5N8 HPAI was confirmed in 212 poultry farms, 38 specimens from wild birds (stools, birds found dead or captured). Ducks were the most frequently infected poultry species (159 outbreak farms, 75.0%), and poultry in 67 (31.6%) outbreak farms was asymptomatic.
As in the previous four H5N1 epidemics of HPAI that occurred in Korea, this epidemic of H5N8 proved to be associated with migratory birds. Poultry farms in Korea can hardly be free from the risk of HPAI introduced via migratory birds. The best way to overcome this geographical factor is to reinforce biosecurity to prevent exposure of farms, related people, and poultry to the pathogen.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Spatial and Temporal Characteristic Analysis and Risk Assessment of Global Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N8 Subtype
    Qi An, Yuepeng Li, Zhuo Sun, Xiang Gao, Hongbin Wang, Daniel Diaz
    Transboundary and Emerging Diseases.2024; 2024: 1.     CrossRef
  • Dispensable role of wild rodents in avian influenza A virus transmission in Gyeonggi province, Korea
    Chung-Young Lee, Ilhwan Kim, Hyuk-Joon Kwon
    Korean Journal of Veterinary Research.2024; 64(2): e13.     CrossRef
  • The global prevalence of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N8) infection in birds: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    Xue-Yao Yang, Qing-Long Gong, Yan-Jin Li, Emad Beshir Ata, Man-Jie Hu, Yong-Yang Sun, Zhi-Yang Xue, Ying-Shi Yang, Xue-Pan Sun, Chun-Wei Shi, Gui-Lian Yang, Hai-Bin Huang, Yan-Long Jiang, Jian-Zhong Wang, Xin Cao, Nan Wang, Yan Zeng, Wen-Tao Yang, Chun-Fe
    Microbial Pathogenesis.2023; 176: 106001.     CrossRef
  • Impact of inland waters on highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks in neighboring poultry farms in South Korea
    Saleem Ahmad, Kyeyoung Koh, Daesung Yoo, Gukhyun Suh, Jaeil Lee, Chang-Min Lee
    Journal of Veterinary Science.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Emergence of a Novel Reassortant H5N3 Avian Influenza Virus in Korean Mallard Ducks in 2018
    Seon-Ju Yeo, Vui Thi Hoang, Tuan Bao Duong, Ngoc Minh Nguyen, Hien Thi Tuong, Mudsser Azam, Haan Woo Sung, Hyun Park
    Intervirology.2022; 65(1): 1.     CrossRef
  • Wild birds as reservoirs for diverse and abundant gamma- and deltacoronaviruses
    Michelle Wille, Edward C Holmes
    FEMS Microbiology Reviews.2020; 44(5): 631.     CrossRef
  • Virus–virus interactions and host ecology are associated with RNA virome structure in wild birds
    Michelle Wille, John‐Sebastian Eden, Mang Shi, Marcel Klaassen, Aeron C. Hurt, Edward C. Holmes
    Molecular Ecology.2018; 27(24): 5263.     CrossRef
  • Development of Clade-Specific and Broadly Reactive Live Attenuated Influenza Virus Vaccines against Rapidly Evolving H5 Subtype Viruses
    Kobporn Boonnak, Yumiko Matsuoka, Weijia Wang, Amorsolo L. Suguitan, Zhongying Chen, Myeisha Paskel, Mariana Baz, Ian Moore, Hong Jin, Kanta Subbarao, Douglas S. Lyles
    Journal of Virology.2017;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Multidimensional analysis model for highly pathogenic avian influenza using data cube and data mining techniques
    Zhenshun Xu, Jonguk Lee, Daihee Park, Yongwha Chung
    Biosystems Engineering.2017; 157: 109.     CrossRef
  • Five distinct reassortants of H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses affected Japan during the winter of 2016–2017
    Nobuhiro Takemae, Ryota Tsunekuni, Kirill Sharshov, Taichiro Tanikawa, Yuko Uchida, Hiroshi Ito, Kosuke Soda, Tatsufumi Usui, Ivan Sobolev, Alexander Shestopalov, Tsuyoshi Yamaguchi, Junki Mine, Toshihiro Ito, Takehiko Saito
    Virology.2017; 512: 8.     CrossRef
  • Complete analysis of the H5 hemagglutinin and N8 neuraminidase phylogenetic trees reveals that the H5N8 subtype has been produced by multiple reassortment events
    Andrew R. Dalby
    F1000Research.2016; 5: 2463.     CrossRef
  • Phylogenetic and biological characterization of three K1203 (H5N8)-like avian influenza A virus reassortants in China in 2014
    Juan Li, Min Gu, Dong Liu, Benqi Liu, Kaijun Jiang, Lei Zhong, Kaituo Liu, Wenqi Sun, Jiao Hu, Xiaoquan Wang, Shunlin Hu, Xiaowen Liu, Xiufan Liu
    Archives of Virology.2016; 161(2): 289.     CrossRef
  • Experimental infection of SPF and Korean native chickens with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N8)
    Eun-Kyoung Lee, Byung-Min Song, Hyun-Mi Kang, Sang-Hee Woo, Gyeong-Beom Heo, Suk Chan Jung, Yong Ho Park, Youn-Jeong Lee, Jae-Hong Kim
    Poultry Science.2016; 95(5): 1015.     CrossRef
  • Wild waterfowl migration and domestic duck density shape the epidemiology of highly pathogenic H5N8 influenza in the Republic of Korea
    Sarah C. Hill, Youn-Jeong Lee, Byung-Min Song, Hyun-Mi Kang, Eun-Kyoung Lee, Amanda Hanna, Marius Gilbert, Ian H. Brown, Oliver G. Pybus
    Infection, Genetics and Evolution.2015; 34: 267.     CrossRef
  • Intracontinental and intercontinental dissemination of Asian H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (clade in the winter of 2014–2015
    Takehiko Saito, Taichiro Tanikawa, Yuko Uchida, Nobuhiro Takemae, Katsushi Kanehira, Ryota Tsunekuni
    Reviews in Medical Virology.2015; 25(6): 388.     CrossRef
Estimation of the Infection Window for the 2010/2011 Korean Foot-and-Mouth Disease Outbreak
Hachung Yoon, Soon-Seek Yoon, Han Kim, Youn-Ju Kim, Byounghan Kim, Sung-Hwan Wee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2013;4(3):127-132.   Published online June 30, 2013
  • 3,033 View
  • 17 Download
  • 11 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
This study aims to develop a method for calculating infection time lines for disease outbreaks on farms was developed using the 2010/2011 foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) epidemic in the Republic of Korea.
Data on farm demography, the detection date of FMD, the clinical history for the manifestation of lesions, the presence of antibodies against FMD virus (including antibodies against the structural and nonstructural proteins of serotype O), vaccination status (O1 Manisa strain), the number of reactors and information on the slaughter of infected animals were utilized in this method.
Based on estimates of the most likely infection date, a cumulative detection probability that an infected farm would be identified on a specific day was determined. Peak infection was observed between late December and early January, but peak detection occurred in mid-January. The early detection probability was highest for pigs, followed by cattle (dairy, then beef) and small ruminants. Nearly 90% of the infected pig farms were detected by Day 11 post-infection while 13 days were required for detection for both dairy and beef cattle farms, and 21 days were necessary for small ruminant (goat and deer) farms. On average, 8.1 ± 3.1 days passed prior to detecting the presence of FMD virus on a farm. The interval between infection and detection of FMD was inversely associated with the intensity of farming.
The results of our study emphasize the importance of intensive clinical inspection, which is the quickest method of detecting FMD infection and minimizing the damage caused by an epidemic.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Estimating the time of infection for African swine fever in pig farms in Korea
    Hachung Yoon, Youngmin Son, Kyung-Sook Kim, Ilseob Lee, Yeon-Hee Kim, Eunesub Lee
    Frontiers in Veterinary Science.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • A Meta-Population Model of Potential Foot-and-Mouth Disease Transmission, Clinical Manifestation, and Detection Within U.S. Beef Feedlots
    Aurelio H. Cabezas, Michael W. Sanderson, Victoriya V. Volkova
    Frontiers in Veterinary Science.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Probabilistic assessment of potential leachate leakage from livestock mortality burial pits: A supervised classification approach using a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) fitted to a groundwater quality monitoring dataset
    Hyun-Koo Kim, Kyoung-Ho Kim, Seong-Taek Yun, Junseop Oh, Ho-Rim Kim, Sun-Hwa Park, Moon-Su Kim, Tae-Seung Kim
    Process Safety and Environmental Protection.2019; 129: 326.     CrossRef
  • Using Simulated Annealing to Improve the Information Dissemination Network Structure of a Foreign Animal Disease Outbreak Response
    James D. Pleuss, Jessica L. Heier Stamm, Jason D. Ellis
    Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Managem.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Managing complexity: Simplifying assumptions of foot-and-mouth disease models for swine
    A. C. Kinsley, K. VanderWaal, M. E. Craft, R. B. Morrison, A. M. Perez
    Transboundary and Emerging Diseases.2018; 65(5): 1307.     CrossRef
  • A study on the spread of the foot-and-mouth disease in Korea in 2010/2011
    Jihyun Hwang, Changhyuck Oh
    Journal of the Korean Data and Information Science.2014; 25(2): 271.     CrossRef
  • Summing Up Again
    Hae-Wol Cho, Chaeshin Chu
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2014; 5(4): 177.     CrossRef
  • Atmospheric pathway: A possibility of continuous outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease in South Korea in 2010–2011
    Prueksakorn Kritana, Kim Taehyeung, Kim Hyeontae, Kim Ki Youn, Son Wongeun
    Computers and Electronics in Agriculture.2014; 108: 95.     CrossRef
  • Journal Publishing: Never Ending Saga
    Hae-Wol Cho, Chaeshin Chu
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2014; 5(1): 1.     CrossRef
  • Roll the Dice
    Hae-Wol Cho, Chaeshin Chu
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2014; 5(5): 243.     CrossRef
  • Years of Epidemics (2009–2011): Pandemic Influenza and Foot-and-Mouth Disease Epidemic in Korea
    Hae-Wol Cho, Chaeshin Chu
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2013; 4(3): 125.     CrossRef

PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives