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Amir Sasan Mozaffari Nejad 3 Articles
The Occurrence and Risk Assessment of Exposure to Aflatoxin M1 in Ultra-High Temperature and Pasteurized Milk in Hamadan Province of Iran
Amir Sasan Mozaffari Nejad, Ali Heshmati, Tayebe Ghiasvand
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2019;10(4):228-233.   Published online August 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2019.10.4.05
  • 3,911 View
  • 120 Download
  • 12 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Aflatoxins are a category of poisonous compounds found in most plants, milk and dairy products. The present research was carried out to detect the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in samples of milk collected from Hamadan province, Iran.

Methods

Twenty five samples of ultra-high temperature (UHT) and 63 samples of pasteurized milk were collected and the amount of AFM1 was measured by an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay method. In addition, the estimated daily intake (EDI) and hazard index (HI) of AFM1 was determined by the following equations:(EDI= mean concentration of AFM1 × daily consumption of milk/body weight; HI= EDI/Tolerance Daily Intake).

Results

AFM1 was detected in 21 (84%) UHT milk samples and in 55 (87.30%) pasteurized milk samples. Seven (28%) samples of UHT and 21 (33.33%) pasteurized milk samples had higher AFM1 content than the limit allowed in the European Union and Iranian National Standard Limits (0.05 μg/kg). None of the samples exceeded the US Food and Drug Administration limit (0.5 μg/kg) for AFM1. EDI and HI for AM1 through milk were 0.107 ng/kg body weight/day, and 0.535, respectively.

Conclusion

A significant percentage of milk produced by different factories in Iran (84% of UHT and 87.3% of pasteurized milk) was contaminated with AFM1. Therefore, more control and monitoring of livestock feeding in dairy companies may help reduce milk contamination with AFM1. As the HI value was lower than 1, it can be assumed that there was no risk of developing liver cancer due to milk consumption.

Natural Infection with Rabies Virus: A Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Study of Human Brains
Firouzeh Farahtaj, Leila Alizadeh, Alireza Gholami, Alireza Tahamtan, Sadegh Shirian, Maryam Fazeli, Amir Sasan Mozaffari Nejad, Ali Gorji, Hamid Mahmoudzadeh Niknam, Amir Ghaemi
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2019;10(1):6-11.   Published online February 28, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2019.10.1.03
  • 3,421 View
  • 205 Download
  • 10 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Despite all the efforts and increased knowledge of rabies, the exact mechanisms of infection and mortality from the rabies virus are not well understood. To understand the mechanisms underlying the pathogenicity of rabies virus infection, it is crucial to study the tissue that the rabies virus naturally infects in humans.

Methods

Cerebellum brain tissue from 9 human post mortem cases from Iran, who had been infected with rabies virus, were examined histopathologically and immunohistochemically to evaluate the innate immune responses against the rabies virus.

Results

Histopathological examination revealed inflammation of the infected cerebellum and immunohistochemical analyses showed an increased immunoreactivity of heat shock protein 70, interleukin-6, interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, caspase-3, caspase-9, toll-like receptor3 and toll-like receptor4 in the infected brain tissue.

Conclusion

These results indicated the involvement of innate immunity in rabies infected human brain tissue, which may aggravate the progression of this deadly disease.

Factors that Correlate with Poor Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients with Complications
Mohammad Haghighatpanah, Amir Sasan Mozaffari Nejad, Maryam Haghighatpanah, Girish Thunga, Surulivelrajan Mallayasamy
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(4):167-174.   Published online August 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.4.05
  • 4,455 View
  • 112 Download
  • 25 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Inadequate glycemic control amongst patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) indicates a major public health problem and a significant risk factor for the progression and complications caused by diabetes. Glycemic control is the main therapeutic objective for the prevention of organ damage and other complications arising from diabetes.

Methods

This was a retrospective observational study of T2DM patients with complications, who were aged 40 years and older. The study was conducted retrospectively on medical records (in-patient and out-patient) obtained from a South Indian teaching hospital, Manipal, India. The patients included in the study had fasting blood sugar, postprandial blood sugar and HbA1c measured at least twice during follow-ups the previous year. Patients’ HbA1c levels were categorized into good control ≤7% (≤53mmol/mol), and poor control >7% (>53mmol/mol), and patients’ characteristics were analyzed.

Results

A total of 657 patients were included in the study. The mean age was 59.67 (SD = 9.617) years, with 152 (23.1%) females and 505 (76.9%) males, and 514 (78.2%) patients had poor glycemic control. Most of the patients were on insulin mono-therapy [n = 271 (42.1%)], about a third of the patients were on combination therapy that included an oral hypoglycemic agent and insulin [n = 236 (36.6%)]. Patients with a history of more than 10 years of diabetes [n = 293 (44.6%)], had a family history of diabetes [n = 256 (39%)] and obesity [n = 95 (14.5%)], all had poor glycemic control.

Conclusion

This present study indicated a significant association of gender (female), age, high-density lipoprotein level, duration of diabetes and type of medication, with poor glycemic control in T2DM patients that had secondary medical complications.


PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives