The Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives (PHRP) is the international bimonthly journal founded in 2010 by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. With the mission of the KCDC, creating the disease-free world, the PHRP encourages to share the medical information and knowledge in the areas of public health.
PHRP publishes Original Articles, Review Articles, Short Communications, Commentaries, Editorials, and Letters to the Editor, with a focus on the following areas of expertise:
(1) Online Submission of Manuscripts
Please submit manuscripts and figures via online at https://mc04.manuscriptcentral.com/osongphrp (Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives online submission system: ScholarOne). Please follow the guideline to prepare and upload your article.
The entire process of manuscript submission, peer-review, and resubmission to Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives is done through online system (https://mc04.manuscriptcentral.com/osongphrp).
Manuscripts must be written in English and submitted by the corresponding author. Manuscripts submitted to Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives will be preliminarily reviewed by the Editorial Office. Manuscripts not conforming to the instructions will be returned to the corresponding authors without being considered for publication.
Any inquiry concerning manuscript submission should be directed to editorial Office: firstname.lastname@example.org
(2) Types of Articles
Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives publish editorials, original articles, review articles, brief reports, correspondence and book reviews.
Editorials provide invited perspective on an area of Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives , dealing with very active fields of research, current interests, fresh insights and debates. An abstract is not required and a brief unstructured text should be prepared. Although editorials are normally invited or written by an Editor, unsolicited editorials may be submitted.
Typical length: 1,000 words, 20 references.
Original articles are papers containing results of basic and clinical investigations, which are sufficiently well documented to be acceptable to critical readers.
Section headings should be written in the following format: title page; abstract and keywords; introduction; materials and methods; results; discussion; conclusions (if any); acknowledgements; references; and tables and figures.
The Introduction should provide concise yet sufficient back ground information about the study to provide the readers with better understanding of the study, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.
Materials and methods should contain detailed procedure of the experiment including investigation period, methods of subject selection, and information on subjects such as age, gender, and other significant features, in order to enable the experiment to be repeated. The procedure which has been already published or standardized shall be described only briefly using literature citations. Clinical trials or experiments involving laboratory animals or pathogens must elaborate animal care and use and experimental protocols, in addition to mentioning the approval from the relevant committees. The sources of special equipment and chemicals must be stated with the name and location of the manufacturer (city and country). All statistical procedures used in the study and criteria for determining significance levels must be described.
The Results should be presented in logical sequence. Only the most important observation should be emphasized or summarized, where the main or the most important findings should be mentioned first. Table and figures must be numbered in the order they are cited in the text, kept to minimum, and should not be repeated. Supplementary materials and other details can be separately sited in an appendix. State the statistical method used to analyze the results (statistical significance of differences) with the probability values given in parentheses.
The Discussion should contain interpretation and explanation of the results and important aspects of the study, followed by the conclusion drawn from them. The information already mentioned in Introduction or Results sections should not be repeated and the main conclusions of the study may be presented in the discussion. The conclusion must be linked with the purpose of the study stated in the abstract, clearly supported by the data produced in the study. New hypotheses may be stated when warranted, but must be clearly labeled.
Typical length: Up to 5,000 words excluding Abstract, References, and Figure/Table Legends.
Review articles provide concise reviews of subjects important to medical researchers, and can be written by an invited medical expert. These have the same format as the original articles but the details may be more flexible depending on the contents.
Typical length: One paragraph with maximum of 200 words for the abstract; maximum of 6,500 words from introduction to conclusion; maximum of 100 references, 10 figures and 10 tables.
Brief reports deal with issues of importance to biomedical researchers. The maximum length of the manuscript should be 2,000 words including tables and figures.
Correspondence is a comment from readers regarding a published article with a reply from the authors of the article.
Book reviews may be published. Please dispatch a book to the editorial office if you think the book is essential to public health personnel
(1) Editorial Polices
The Editorial Office of Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives receives and reviews all submitted manuscripts, and all submitted manuscripts are considered confidential. The submitted manuscripts are initially screened for the format. Once the manuscript is provisionally accepted, it is sent to the three most relevant referees for review. The referees are selected by the editor from the Editorial Board's database or the board members' recommendation. The referees are then requested to evaluate based on originality, validity, presentation, and importance and interest, and, when considered necessary, statistics.
Acceptance of a manuscript depends on the evaluation, critiques, and recommended decision made by the referees. A referee may recommend 'accept', 'minor revision', 'major revision' and 'reject'. Upon opposing recommended decisions between referees, or author and referee(s), the Editor-in-Chief has the full right to decide whether the manuscript will be published in the journal.
Three repeated decisions of 'major revisions' are regarded as a 'reject' and rejected papers will not be considered further.
The reviewed manuscripts with comments, recommended directions, and revisions are returned to the corresponding author. The corresponding author is to submit the revised manuscript accompanied by point-to-point replies to the comments given by the editor and how the revisions have been made. There should be a reasonable explanation for any noncompliance with the recommendations. In cases where references, tables, or figures are moved, added or deleted during the revision process, renumbering must be done so that all references, tables, and figures are cited in numeric order. If the revised paper is not received within 2 months of decision, the manuscript is considered to have been withdrawn.
When the final decision on the acceptance of the manuscript is made, the Editorial Office notifies the corresponding author. The peer-review process takes approximately 8-12 weeks.
(2) Peer Review Process
This journal operates a double blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final.
(3) Manuscript Originality
Manuscripts are considered with the understanding that no part of the work has been published previously in print or electronic format and the paper is not under consideration by another publication or electronic medium. All in press or submitted works that are pertinent to the manuscript under consideration by the journal (including those cited in the manuscript under consideration) must accompany the submission. Related manuscripts that have been submitted elsewhere during the period of revision must accompany revised manuscripts. Failure to provide copies of related manuscripts under consideration elsewhere may delay the review process and may be grounds for rejection. Under no circumstances will any paper be considered that contains any data that have been submitted for publication elsewhere.
(4) Role of the Funding Source
You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.
Authorship credit must be based on:
1) substantial contributions to the concept and design, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; 2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and 3) final approval of the version to be published. All authors must meet the above three conditions. If the number of authors exceeds six, the specific role(s) of authors should be described at the end of the main text.
(6) Redundant publication and plagiarism
Attempting to publish substantially similar work more than once without attribution of the original source(s) is considered a redundant publication. Definition of being substantially similar can be explained as follows:
At least one of the authors is common to all reports (it is likely to be plagiarism if there are no common authors);
The subject or study populations are same or similar;
The methodology is typically identical or nearly so and;
The results and interpretation varies little or not at all.
If all or part of the subject population has been reported previously, it should be declared in the Materials and Methods and must be appropriately referenced. In cases where authors are concerned with any potential overlap with published manuscripts or manuscripts being reviewed, the authors must include a letter explaining how the manuscript submitted to PHRP significantly differs from other materials. For more information, please refer to ‘Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication’ (Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3142758/).
(7) Research ethics
All manuscripts should be prepared under strict observation of research and publication ethics guidelines recommended by the Council of Science Editors, International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Association of Medical Editors. Any study including human subjects or human data must be reviewed and approved by a responsible institutional review board (IRB). For further information on investigations involving human material, please refer to the principles in the Declaration of Helsinki. (https://www.wma.net/policies-post/wma-declaration-of-helsinki-ethical-principles-for-medical-research-involving-human-subjects/).
(8) Researching Reporting Guideline
PHRP requires that manuscripts adhere to recognized reporting guidelines relevant to the research design used and requires author(s) to submit a checklist verifying that essential elements have been reported for all primary researches and systematic reviews.
Reporting guidelines endorsed by the journal are listed below:
(9) Data statement
To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential.
(10) Human and Animal Rights
Animal experiments should also be reviewed by an appropriate committee (IACUC: Institutional Animal Care and use Committee) for the care and the use of animals. Studies involving pathogens requiring a high degree of biosafety should pass review of a relevant committee (IBC: Institutional Biosafety Committee). The editor of PHRP may request submission of copies of informed consents from human subjects in all studies or IRB approval documents. Articles where human subjects can be identified in descriptions, photographs or pedigrees must be accompanied by a signed statement of informed consent to publish (in print and online) the descriptions, photographs and pedigrees from each subject who can be identified. Articles covering the use of human samples in research and human experiments must be approved by the relevant review committee. Articles covering the use of animals in experiments must be approved by the relevant authorities.
Published manuscripts become the permanent property of Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and must not be published elsewhere without written permission. All articles published in the Journal are protected by copyright, which covers the exclusive rights to reproduce and distribute the article, as well as translation rights. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in any retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, by photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission from Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . All authors are to thoroughly read and sign "Authorship Responsibility and Copyright Transfer(Journal Publishing Agreement)" form of Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and submit it with the manuscript through the online submission system.
(12) Open access
Every peer-reviewed article appearing in this journal will be published open access. This means that the article is universally and freely accessible via the internet in perpetuity, in an easily readable format immediately after publication. The author does not have any Publication charges for open access. Korea Centers for Disease Control & Prevention will pay to make the article open access.
Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derives For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.
(1) Manuscript Preparation and Format
All manuscripts must be in grammatically correct English and should be created using MS Word. It must be double-spaced and written in an A4 page format. Do not leave a space between paragraphs. Only a single font (preferably Times New Roman) should be used in 11 point with margin of 2.5 cm. Latin origin words should not be italicized and all pages including the title page should be paginated consecutively. All numbers should be written in Arabic numerals throughout the manuscript except for the first word of the sentence. Texts should be justified on both sides and not hyphenated and headings should be in bold letters, aligned in the center. If possible, avoid using abbreviated words in the beginning of sentences.
(2) Article Structure
1) IntroductionState the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.
2) Materials and methods
Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described.
Ensure correct use of the terms sex (when reporting biological factors) and gender (identity, psychosocial or cultural factors). Unless inappropriate, report the sex and/or gender of study participants, the sex of animals or cells, and describe the methods used to determine sex or gender. If the study involved an exclusive population (only one sex, for example), authors should justify why, except in obvious cases (e.g., prostate cancer). Authors should define how they determined race or ethnicity, and justify their relevance.
Results should be clear and concise.
This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.
The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.
6) Acknowledgement: If any
All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship as defined above should be listed in an acknowledgment section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, writing assistance, or a department chair who provided only general support. Authors should disclose whether they had any writing assistance and identify the entity that paid for this assistance
If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Figure A.1, etc.
(3) Submission check list
You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review. Please check the relevant section in this Guide for Authors for more details.
Ensure that the following items are present:
One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address
All necessary files have been uploaded:
• Include keywords
• All figures (include relevant captions)
• All tables (including titles, description, footnotes)
• Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided
• Indicate clearly if color should be used for any figures in print
• Manuscript has been 'spell checked' and 'grammar checked'
• All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
• A competing interests statement is provided, even if the authors have no competing interests to declare
• Journal policies detailed in this guide have been reviewed
• Referee suggestions and contact details provided, based on journal requirements
1) Title page
The title page should include: 1) the title of the article (less than 50 words); 2) name of the authors (first name, middle initial, last name in capital) and institutional affiliation including name of department(s) and institution(s) of each author; 3) name, highest academic degree, full address (including the postal code)of the institutional affiliation, telephone and fax numbers, and email address of the corresponding author; 4) A running title, 50 characters or less including blank and; 5) any disclaimers.
2) Abstract and Keywords
An abstract and 3-6 relevant keywords (in alphabetical order) are required. Abstracts should be no more than 250 words in length. Abstracts for Original Articles should be structured, with the section headings: Objectives, Methods, Results, Conclusion. Abstracts for Review Articles and Case Reports are unstructured in one single paragraph. But for Case Reports, it should include the significance and purpose of the case presentation, the diagnostic methods of the case, the key data, and brief comments and suggestions with regard to the case.
For selecting keywords, refer to the Index Medicus Medical Subject Headings (National Library of Medicine (US). MeSH [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 1954 [updated 2009, cited 2009 Nov 1]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mesh).
3) Main Text
The text for Original Articles, for example, should include the following sections: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, and Discussion.
The Introduction should be as concise as possible, without subheadings. The Methods section should be sufficiently detailed. Subheadings may be used to organize the Results and Discussion.
Where a term/definition is continually referred to (i.e. 3 times in the text), it is written in full when it first appears, followed by the subsequent abbreviation in parentheses (even if it was previously defined in the abstract); thereafter, the abbreviation is used.
5) Gene Nomenclature
Current standard international nomenclature for genes should be adhered to. Genes should be typed in italic font and include the accession number. For human genes, use genetic notation and symbols approved by the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (http://www.genenames.org/) or refer to PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez).
Système International (SI) units must be used, with the exception of blood pressure values which are to be reported in mmHg. Please use the metric system for the expression of length, area, mass, and volume. There should be a space between the numerals and the unit symbol. When indicating time, the 24 hour system is to be used.
7) Math formulae
Present simple formulae in the line of normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).
A footnote appears at the bottom of the first page of the article, and includes the received date of the manuscript, date of acceptance for publication, and the e-mail address of the corresponding author. Any changed affiliation of authors should be noted.
If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on.
10) Conflicts of Interest
The corresponding author must inform the editor of any potential conflicts of interest that could influence the author’s interpretation of the data. Examples of potential conflicts of interest are financial support from or connections to pharmaceutical companies, political pressure from interest groups, and academically related issues. Conflict of interest statements will be published at the end of the text of the article, before the ‘References’ section. Please consult the COPE guidelines (http://www.publicationethics.org/) on conflict of interest. Even when there is no conflict of interest, it should also be stated. When the manuscript is accepted for publication Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives will decide whether the disclosure will be communicated in the published paper (after consulting with the corresponding author).
All persons who have made a significant contribution to the article but are not eligible for authors should be explicitly stated. Examples of persons that may be named in the acknowledgment include those who have provided purely technical help, writing assistance and general support. In case of writing assistance, the entity paid for the assistance must be disclosed. In addition to this, all sources of funding must also be stated. The authors are obliged to declare the study sponsors' roles in any part of preparing, conducting, writing, and submitting the manuscript. If there was no involvement from the study sponsors, the authors should state this.
Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of their references and for correct text citation.
Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of their references and for correct text citation. References presented with [ ] following a surname in the main text, such as Kim  and Kim et al . When a reference is cited within the content, it is shown as  or [4,5] at the end. References should be searchable online.
References should be identified non-superscript and Arabic numerals in squared brackets, in the order they appear in the text('style of NLM (the National Library of Medicine, https://www.nlm.nih.gov/bsd/uniform_requirements.html)'.
In the main text, tables and figure legends
• References should be identified non-superscript and Arabic numerals in squared brackets, in the order they appear in the text(NML style), and be placed before punctuation.
• The last names and initials of all the authors up to 3 should be included. For articles with more than 3 authors, list the first 3 authors only followed by "et al". • References cited in tables or figure legends should be included in sequence at the point where the table or figure is first mentioned in the main text.
• Do not cite abstracts unless they are the only available reference to an important concept.
• Uncompleted work or work that has not yet been accepted for publication (i.e., "unpublished observation", "personal communication") should not be cited as references.
In the references list
• References should be limited to those cited in the text and listed in the order in which they appear in the text.
• References should include, in order, authors' surnames and initials, article title, abbreviated journal name, year, volume and inclusive page numbers. The last names and initials of all author names should be included. Abbreviations for journal names should conform to those used in MEDLINE.
• If citing a website, provide the author information, article title, website address and the date you accessed the information.
• Reference to an article that is in press must state the journal name and, if possible, the year and volume.
• Use of DOI is highly encouraged. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct.
• Those not shown in the below examples should be cited according to 'Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals' and 'style of NLM (the National Library of Medicine, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK7256/)'.
Author(s) – Family name and initials. Title of article. Title of journal – abbreviated Publication year, month, day (month & day only if available); volume:pages.
• Kim JS, Lee WY, Chun SL. Ecology of filariasis on Cheju Island. Korean J Parasitol 1973;11(1):33-53.
• Lee WY. A study on Aedes togoi as vector of filariasis in Cheju Island. Korean J Parasitol 1969;7(2):153-9.
• Hamelin M, Yim K, Kuhn KH, et al. Pathogenesis of human metapneumovirus lung infection in BALB/c mice and cotton rats. J Virol 2005;79(4):8894-903.
• Shim JJ. Study on Blood-born Diseases of Healthcare Workers. OSH Res Brief 2009;19:36-43. [in Korean].
Author(s) – Family name and initials, Multiple authors separated by a comma. Title of book. Edition of book if later than 1st ed. Place of Publication: Publisher Name; Year of Publication. Pages.
• Belitz HD, Grosch W, Schieberle P. Food chemistry. 3rd rev. ed. Burghagen MM, translator. Berlin (Germany): Springer; 2004. 1070 p.
• Riffenburgh RH. Statistics in medicine. 2nd ed. Amsterdam (Netherlands): Elsevier Academic Press; 2006. p. 447-86.
• Statistics on occupational injuries and illnesses, 2008. Gwacheon (Korea): Ministry of Employment and Labor (KR); 2009. 1093 p.
Author(s). Title of publication [type of medium – Internet]. Place of publication (if available): Publisher (if available). Date of publication – year month day (supply year if month and day not available) [updated year month day; cited year month day]. Available from: web address.
PeriStats [Internet]. White Plains (NY): March of Dimes Perinatal Data Center. 2007 [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.marchofdimes.com/peristats/.
WHO[Internet]. Essential surgical care manual: Resuscitation and anesthesia, important medical conditions for the anesthetist. [cited 2015 Mar 30].Available from: http://www.steinergraphics.com/surgical/005_13.8.
13) Tables and figures
The main text, tables, figures and images should be prepared in separate files. Figures and images that are drawn or photographed professionally should be sent as JPG or PPT files. When the manuscript is accepted to be published, the corresponding author may be asked to submit higher resolution figure files.
Tables should be simple, self-explanatory, and supplemental, and should not duplicate the text or figures. Each table must be on a separate page, not exceeding one page when printed and have a concise and informative title. The tables should be numbered with Arabic numerals in consecutive order. Each column should be appropriately headed with units in parentheses if numerical measures are given. All units of measurements and concentrations must be indicated. Footnotes should be indicated with superscript symbols in the following sequence; *; †; ‡; §; ||, ¶; **; ††; ‡‡.
Figures must be professionally prepared. Each figure must have a caption explaining the figure. Figures should also be numbered with Arabic numerals on the left bottom corner in consecutive order as they appear in the text (top to bottom, left to right) e.g., Figure 1, Figures 1,2, Figures 1-3. When tables and figures are mentioned together in the text, it should be mentioned in the parentheses as follows e.g. (Table1; Figure 1), (Tables 1,2; Figures 1-3). The preferred size of the images is 8 x 8 cm but 16.5 cm in width x 8 cm in length is also acceptable. Authors will not be charged for color photographing expenses. It is authors' full responsibility to submit images of sufficient quality for accurate reproduction and to approve the final color galley proof. All images must be correctly exposed, sharply focused and prepared in files of 500 dpi or more. Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives will not take responsibility for the quality of the images that appear in the journal. The images should be numbered with Arabic numerals consecutively in figure legends. The images must not be interfered and must be clearly seen. The legend for each light microscopic image should include name of the stain and magnification. Electron microscopic images should contain an internal scale marker. All images may be altered in size by the editor. Legends for images should be typewritten with maximum of 40 words. Separate sheet for each legend is not necessary. The legends should briefly describe the data shown, explain abbreviations or reference points, and identify all units, mathematical expressions, abscissas, ordinates, and symbols.
The corresponding author will be provided with galley proofs for correcting the manuscript. Before publication, corresponding authors will receive a PDF file of the typeset pages for copyediting. Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives recommends authors to keep the corrections to a minimum. The modifications made to the page proofs should be sent to Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives Editorial Office via email within 5 working days. The Editorial Office may contact the corresponding author regarding the modifications made to the page proof. If the corresponding author fails to submit the page proof within 5 working days, the manuscript may be rescheduled to be published in the subsequent issue.